Skip header and navigation

Refine By

108 records – page 1 of 11.

Adverse reactions in healthy and immunocompromised children under six years of age vaccinated with the Danish BCG vaccine, strain Copenhagen 1331: implications for the vaccination policy in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36048
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1993 Dec;82(12):1043-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
V. Romanus
A. Fasth
P. Tordai
B E Wiholm
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Solna, Sweden.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1993 Dec;82(12):1043-52
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
BCG Vaccine - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Health Policy
Humans
Hypertrophy - epidemiology
Immunocompromised Host
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes - diagnosis
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lymph Nodes - pathology
Retrospective Studies
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Vaccination - adverse effects
Abstract
A retrospective analysis of the adverse reactions reported between 1979 and 1991, in the 139,000 children under six years of age vaccinated in Sweden with the Danish BCG vaccine, strain Copenhagen 1331, showed an incidence of 1.9 per 1000 vaccinated children. Regional lymphoglandular swellings and/or abscesses were most commonly reported in 1.4 per 1000. Serious, disseminated, BCG infections developed in four infants vaccinated neonatally. Three of the infants suffered from severe, combined, immunodeficiency syndrome, undiagnosed at the time of vaccination. The incidence of severe, combined, immunodeficiency syndrome was higher in the BCG-vaccinated population (4 per 100,000 infants vaccinated within a year of their births), compared with all newborns in Sweden (1 per 100,000). The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 2.4 months for the seven non-BCG-vaccinated infants versus 1.3 months for the four BCG-vaccinated ones, while the immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed at an average age of 7.6 months in those who were not vaccinated versus 5.3 months in those BCG-vaccinated. It is recommended that the selective BCG vaccination of infants at high risk of exposure to tuberculosis should be postponed to six months of age to reduce the risk of inoculating infants suffering from immunodeficiency syndromes.
PubMed ID
8155923 View in PubMed
Less detail

American Academy of Pediatrics. Preventive health care for young children: Findings from a 10-country study and directions for United States policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36720
Source
Pediatrics. 1992 May;89(5 Pt 2):981-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1992
Author
B C Williams
C A Miller
Author Affiliation
Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599-7400.
Source
Pediatrics. 1992 May;89(5 Pt 2):981-98
Date
May-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Advocacy
Child Health Services - economics - organization & administration - standards
Child Welfare
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Health Policy
Health Services Accessibility - standards
Health Services Research
Humans
Immunization - standards
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Male
Medical Record Linkage
Population Surveillance
Preventive Health Services - economics - organization & administration - standards
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Social Support
Social Welfare
United States - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - mortality
Abstract
Infant health and survival in the US compare unfavorably with other Western industrial democracies. Circumstances that contribute to favorable pregnancy outcomes in other countries include nearly complete participation of pregnant women in early prenatal care and linkage of care to extensive support benefits. The study reported here extends these earlier observations to preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All of these countries have better infant survival rates than the US, and they all share elements of pluralism in their systems of health care.
Notes
Comment In: Pediatrics. 1992 Dec;90(6):1005-61437418
PubMed ID
1574377 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of Bordetella pertussis populations in European countries with different vaccination policies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29665
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jun;43(6):2837-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
S C M van Amersfoorth
L M Schouls
H G J van der Heide
A. Advani
H O Hallander
K. Bondeson
C H W von König
M. Riffelmann
C. Vahrenholz
N. Guiso
V. Caro
E. Njamkepo
Q. He
J. Mertsola
F R Mooi
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Vaccine Preventable Diseases. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Anthonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jun;43(6):2837-43
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Bordetella pertussis - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe
Fimbriae Proteins
Health Policy
Humans
Immunization Programs
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Minisatellite Repeats - genetics
Pertussis Vaccine - administration & dosage
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Serotyping
Vaccination
Virulence Factors - genetics
Whooping Cough - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Despite the widespread use of pertussis vaccines during the last decades, pertussis has remained an endemic disease with frequent epidemic outbreaks. Currently two types of vaccines are used: whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) and recently developed acellular vaccines (ACVs). The long-term aim of our studies is to assess the effect of different vaccination policies on the population structure of Bordetella pertussis and ultimately on the disease burden in Europe. In the present study, a total of 102 B. pertussis isolates from the period 1998 to 2001 from five European countries (Finland, Sweden, Germany, The Netherlands, and France) were characterized. The isolates were analyzed by typing based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR); by sequencing of polymorphic genes encoding the surface proteins pertussis toxin S1 and S3 subunits (ptxA and ptxC), pertactin (prn), and tracheal colonization factor (tcfA); and by fimbrial serotyping. The results reveal a relationship between geographic location and VNTR types, the frequency of the ptxC alleles, and serotypes. We have not observed a relationship between the strain characteristics we studied and vaccination programs. Our results provide a baseline which can be used to reveal changes in the B. pertussis population in Europe in the coming years.
PubMed ID
15956406 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antibiotic use by indication: a basis for active antibiotic policy in the community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191275
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(12):920-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
U M Rautakorpi
T. Klaukka
P. Honkanen
M. Mäkelä
T. Nikkarinen
E. Palva
R. Roine
H. Sarkkinen
P. Huovinen
Author Affiliation
Pirkkala Health Centre, Finland.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(12):920-6
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Policy
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The aim of this study was to survey current treatment practices for common infections in primary care as a basis for implementation of recently released evidence-based guidelines for community-acquired infections. A point-prevalence survey was conducted in 30 health centres in the Finnish primary care system with a population base of 819,777. All patients consulting the health centres for an infection during a 1-week period were included in the study. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of antibiotic prescription and the selection of drugs by infection diagnosis. Of the 7777 recorded consultations, 85% were with a physician and the rest with a nurse. The most common cause for a visit was respiratory tract infections (74%), followed by skin/wound infections and urinary tract infections (both 6%). The infection panorama varied markedly according to age: in the youngest children ( 65 y was 50%; the proportions of visits for urinary tract infections in these age groups were 7% and 26%, respectively. Of the patients with acute bronchitis, 70% were treated with antimicrobial agents, mostly macrolides (39%) and doxycycline (36%). Of the otitis media patients, 53% were treated with amoxicillin, 16% with macrolides and 16% with sulphatrimethoprim. Macrolides were mostly used to treat otitis media (31%), acute bronchitis (26%) and sinusitis (20%). In conclusion, antimicrobial agents are still used excessively in Finland, particularly for the treatment of acute bronchitis. Moreover, the selection of drugs for treating sinusitis and otitis media is non-optimal; macrolides and cephalosporins are frequently chosen unnecessarily. Knowledge of the indication-based prescription practices for antimicrobial agents is essential in order to improve the treatment habits of primary care physicians. The data obtained in this study provide a unique tool for the active and targeted implementation of evidence-based guidelines for primary care physicians.
PubMed ID
11868766 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arctic health policy: contribution of scientific data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4335
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Aug;206(4-5):351-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
James E Berner
Andrew Gilman
Author Affiliation
Office of Community Health, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. jberner@anthc.org
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Aug;206(4-5):351-62
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Environmental health
Female
Health Policy
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
International Cooperation
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
National Health Programs
Norway - epidemiology
Oceanic Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
United States
Abstract
In Western Hemisphere arctic regions, scientific findings in humans, wildlife, and the environment have resulted in major governmental policy formulations. Government policy resulted in establishment of an effective international organization to address scientifically identified problems, including health disparities in arctic indigenous populations. Western scientific data and indigenous knowledge from initial international programs led to international agreements restricting certain persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, scientific data, and indigenous traditional knowledge, have resulted in governmental policy in the United States, Canada, and Nordic countries that includes the full participation of indigenous residents in defining research agendas, interpreting data, communicating information, and local community policy formulation.
PubMed ID
12971690 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A strategy of health for all--are we reaching our target to reduce mortality?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24547
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1992 Jan 10;112(1):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-1992
Author
B. Guldvog
Author Affiliation
Seksjon for forebyggende og helsefremmende arbeid, Statens Institutt for Folkehelse, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1992 Jan 10;112(1):57-63
Date
Jan-10-1992
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Female
Health Policy - trends
Health promotion
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Life Expectancy - trends
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
In the late seventies the World Health Organization developed a strategy of Health for all towards year 2000, to which Norwegian health authorities have consented. This article presents and discusses the sub-goals for expectation of life and mortality, and analyzes the possibilities of reaching them. The desired reduction of at least 25% in accident mortality rates and cardiovascular mortality rates in relation to the reference period 1976-80 will probably be reached. In addition, the desired 15% reduction in cancer mortality is likely to be reached for persons under 40 years of age. Infant mortality does not appear to be declining, cancer mortality for people over 40 years of age is increasing, and the suicidal and homicidal rates are increasing faster than any other cause of death. The possibilities of reversing this development require a structured plan and comprehensive changes in the way society is organized, with more emphasis on care, social network planning and reduction of the multicausal risk load that modern life implies. Some of the sub-goals are not sufficiently founded on accessible information, and should be revised.
PubMed ID
1553648 View in PubMed
Less detail

At the edges of embodiment: determinants of breastfeeding for First Nations women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260272
Source
Breastfeed Med. 2014 May;9(4):203-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Rachel Eni
Wanda Phillips-Beck
Punam Mehta
Source
Breastfeed Med. 2014 May;9(4):203-14
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding - ethnology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Decision Making
Fathers - psychology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Education - organization & administration
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy
Health promotion
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology - psychology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mothers - psychology
Pain
Pregnancy
Public Opinion
Self Concept
Social Support
Time Factors
Women's Health - ethnology
Abstract
In Canada, First Nations women are far less likely to breastfeed than other women. First Nations people have been subjected to massive health and social disparities and are at the lowest end of the scale on every measure of well-being. The purpose of this study is to understand the experiences, strengths, and challenges of breastfeeding for First Nations women. Central to the current research is the notion of an embodiment within indigenous women's health and, more specifically, breastfeeding perspectives.
Guided by an indigenous feminist standpoint, our research study evolved through honest discussions and is informed by relevant public health literature on breastfeeding. We collected quantitative data through a survey on demographics and feeding practices, and we conducted focus groups in three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario) over a period of 1 year (2010) from 65 women in seven First Nation communities.
Three overarching themes are discussed: social factors, including perceptions of self; breastfeeding environments; and intimacy, including the contribution of fathers. The main findings are that breastfeeding is conducive to bed sharing, whereas a history of residential school attendance, physical and psychological trauma, evacuations for childbirth, and teen pregnancy are obstacles to breastfeeding. Also, fathers play a pivotal role in a woman's decision to breastfeed.
Findings from this study contribute to informing public health by reconsidering simplistic health promotion and public health policies and, instead, educating First Nations communities about the complexity of factors associated with multiple breastfeeding environments.
PubMed ID
24606065 View in PubMed
Less detail

Balancing organ quality, HLA-matching, and waiting times: impact of a pediatric priority allocation policy for deceased donor kidneys in Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163043
Source
Transplantation. 2007 Jun 15;83(11):1411-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2007
Author
Samuel R Crafter
Lorraine Bell
Bethany J Foster
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology (E-222), Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Canada.
Source
Transplantation. 2007 Jun 15;83(11):1411-5
Date
Jun-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cadaver
Child
Child, Preschool
Health Care Rationing
Health Policy
Histocompatibility testing
Humans
Infant
Kidney - physiopathology
Quebec
Time Factors
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Waiting Lists
Abstract
Deceased donor kidney allocation policy must balance the desire for high-quality organs, good human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, and minimal waiting times. We describe a 10-fold reduction in waiting times and an improvement in nonimmunologic indices of organ quality for child recipients after a change in organ allocation policy in Quebec, Canada. The new policy gives first priority to children (
PubMed ID
17565312 View in PubMed
Less detail

108 records – page 1 of 11.