Dynamics and causes of infant and child mortality in the Russian Federation in post-Soviet period (1990-2012) under conditions of demographic policy implementation and healthcare system reforming are presented.
Federal State Statistics Service's official statistics data (1990-2012) had been analyzed. The data was compared with similar rates of European Union countries.
It's been revealed that infant mortality decreased (more than in 2 times) (from 17.4 per thousand to 8.6 per thousand) through all its level indicators (early neonatal, neonatal, post-neonatal mortality) and due to almost all basic reasons (perinatal disorders, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, congenital anomalies, accidents). Infant mortality rate in rural areas is higher (10.1 per thousand and 8.1 per thousand), however, the gap between rates in rural regions and in cities is decreasing. In Russian Federation the infant mortality has regional distinctions, thus Siberian and Far Eastern regions are the least advantaged areas. Mortality of children under 5y.o. is declining (from 21.3 per thousand to 10.6 per thousand), but its rate is still higher than in European Union countries (3.5 per thousand). External factors occupy the top position as a death cause of infants and toddlers; the number of clinical cases with a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm increases.
Thus, improving of the system of motherhood and childhood protection in the Russian Federation has resulted in significant reduction of infant and child mortality rate.