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Are subarctic Indians undergoing the epidemiologic transition?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4941
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(6):659-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
Author
T K Young
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1988;26(6):659-71
Date
1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Alcohol Drinking - ethnology
Arctic Regions
Birth rate
Canada
Chronic Disease - ethnology
Communicable Diseases - ethnology - history - mortality
Diet
Fertility
Health Policy
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Indians, North American - history
Mortality
Nutritional Status
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Change
Abstract
The applicability of A. R. Omran's 'epidemiologic transition' theory to subarctic Indians in Canada is examined in a historical review of health and demographic data. The major trends since the time of European contact include the rise-and-fall of infectious diseases, the emergence of chronic, degenerative diseases, and the preeminence of the social pathologies in the post-World War II era. The divergences of the Amerindian experience from the 3 models in the epidemiologic transition theory and their implications for health care delivery are discussed.
PubMed ID
3283949 View in PubMed
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A case-control study to evaluate the effectiveness of mass neonatal BCG vaccination among Canadian Indians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236826
Source
Am J Public Health. 1986 Jul;76(7):783-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1986
Author
T K Young
E S Hershfield
Source
Am J Public Health. 1986 Jul;76(7):783-6
Date
Jul-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
BCG Vaccine
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Policy
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Isoniazid - therapeutic use
Male
Manitoba
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Registries
Risk
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
This paper reports a case-control study to assess the protective effect of BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination among Indian infants in Manitoba, Canada. A record of past BCG vaccination was found in 49 per cent of the tuberculosis cases, compared to 77 per cent of the controls, yielding a relative risk of 0.30. Stratified analysis, controlling for age, increased the relative risk to 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.22 - 0.69). The preventive fraction was 44 per cent. Non-differential misclassification of exposure status could have occurred; if this was adjusted for, the relative risk would be reduced. If only bacteriologically confirmed cases were analyzed, the age-adjusted relative risk was 0.27. The protective effect of BCG vaccination in the newborn among Manitoba Indians is therefore at least 60 per cent. The implications for health policy in this population are further discussed.
Notes
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1974 May;99(5):325-324825599
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1976 Feb;103(2):226-351251836
Cites: Adv Tuberc Res. 1976;19:1-63823803
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1976;54(3):255-69798638
Cites: Annu Rev Med. 1977;28:411-23324370
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58(1):37-416991146
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1985 Mar-Apr;76(2):124-94005772
Cites: Br Med J. 1980 Nov 29;281(6253):1445-67437830
Cites: Tubercle. 1982 Mar;63(1):23-357080211
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1982 Jul 15;127(2):101-27046894
Cites: JAMA. 1983 May 6;249(17):2362-96834635
Cites: Lancet. 1984 Jan 21;1(8369):145-86140451
Cites: Adv Tuberc Res. 1980;20:1-637395639
PubMed ID
3717464 View in PubMed
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Health care research: what is it about?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature231976
Source
Qual Assur Health Care. 1989;1(4):249-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
A. Liberati
E. Chatziandreou
O S Miettinen
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.
Source
Qual Assur Health Care. 1989;1(4):249-57
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Goals
Health Policy
Health Services Research - methods
Humans
Research Design - standards
United States
Abstract
Interest in research on health care has become quite substantial, in part as a result of the recent emergence of public-policy concern for quality assurance and cost-containment. Yet, the essence of this novel line of research has remained, regrettably, a matter of confusion. In particular, the distinction between health care research on one side and health research on the other is being missed in some eminent writings. We emphasize that, properly, the former is to be viewed as having health care, rather than health, as its object, and as being largely descriptive fact-finding about the nature and occurrence of various processes of health care. In these terms it serves policy and administrative decisions in the context of whatever knowledge is available from health research--as to the health consequences of such processes of care. Health research (applied), in turn, addresses the nature and occurrence of phenomena of health (their frequency)--in relation to type of health care, inter alia. Using the example of the North Karelia project, we illustrate the negative consequences of including under health care research inquiries into the premises of health care--notably studies on the effects of care on health outcome.
PubMed ID
2490970 View in PubMed
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