The purpose of the study is to facilitate international co-operation and national development on AIDS-policy by describing and comparing the programmes on the control of AIDS in the five Nordic countries. This article is focusing especially on community and individual considerations in legislation and test policy regarding HIV-infection in relation to general testing, testing of special groups, registration, voluntariness and confidentiality. The data were collected in the period of April-December 1987 by a review of existing documental material, mailed questionnaires to key persons in the health agencies in each country and personal interviews with 60 representatives of relevant organisations and institutions. The analysis of the data demonstrate that all the Nordic countries are seeking compromises which try to satisfy individual as well as community needs, although with different weight attached to the elements involved. Compared with international recommendations, national AIDS-policies in the Nordic countries in some instances do not fully respect voluntariness and confidentiality. It is concluded that AIDS-policy should be studied in the context of national traditions concerning general health policy, individual rights and community protection.
Four time-series models are introduced for analysing the demand for addictive substances. The models are applied to estimate the demand for tobacco products in Finland. Separate models were found appropriate for different products. The price of cigarettes is the most important single determinant of the demand for tobacco products. The demand for cigarettes is twice as sensitive to falling prices (elasticity - 0.94) than to rising prices (elasticity - 0.49). The demand for cigarettes is also responsive to changes in real income. The most important factor influencing the demand for pipe tobacco is the price of cigarettes. The demand for cigars is adequately explained by changes in its price. The 1977 Tobacco Act and the anti-smoking publicity preceding it appear to have reduced the cigarette demand permanently by 7%. The results imply that taxation would seem a powerful instrument for achieving the objectives of restricting consumption of tobacco products and raising government revenue. Yet, taxation together with extensive anti-smoking publicity would have a more advantageous effect than either of them used in isolation.
This paper demonstrates that while price policy provides a powerful tool for deterring tobacco consumption, the objectives of general economic policy may hamper its effective usage. It is shown that even comprehensive legislative and administrative actions may be ineffective unless they are supported by price measures.