Interprofessional education is an approach to educating and training students and practitioners from different health professions to work in a collaborative manner in providing client and/or patient-centred care. The introduction and successful implementation of this educational approach is dependent on a variety of factors, including the attitudes of students, faculty, senior academic administrators (e.g., deans and directors) and practitioners. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education amongst academic administrators of post-secondary health professional education programs in Canada. A web-based questionnaire in English and French was distributed via e-mail messaging during January 2004 to academic administrators in Canada representing medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, occupational therapy and physiotherapy post-secondary educational programs. Responses were sought on attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education, as well as opinions regarding barriers to interprofessional education and subject areas that lend themselves to interprofessional education. In general, academic administrators responding to the survey hold overall positive attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education practices, and the results indicate there were no significant differences between professions in relation to these attitudinal perspectives. The main barriers to interprofessional education were problems with scheduling/calendar, rigid curriculum, turf battles and lack of perceived value. The main pre-clinical subject areas which respondents believed would lend themselves to interprofessional education included community health/prevention, ethics, communications, critical appraisal, and epidemiology. The results of this study suggest that a favourable perception of both interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education exists amongst academic administrators of Canadian health professional education programs. If this is the case, the post-secondary system in Canada is primed for the introduction of interprofessional education initiatives which support the development of client and patient-centred collaborative practice competencies.
BACKGROUND: In Sweden, the incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin is rapidly increasing, and the disease is now one of the ten most common tumor types. The objectives were to apply multimedia techniques to increase public knowledge about malignant melanoma and its risk factors, to increase awareness of preventive measures, and to make people more disposed to change their sunbathing habits. METHODS: A trilingual (Swedish, English, and German) multimedia program was developed for two target groups, health care personnel and the general public, with a total of >500 "pages" in each language. User reactions were studied on-site at a municipal pharmacy and library, where the program was available in a kiosk with touch-screen. RESULTS: Practically all 274 users interviewed found the program easy to use and understand. 92% identified one or more of the recommendations given. 66% found the program information "worrying," and 29%--mainly young women-instantly declared that they were going to change their sun-exposure behaviors. No correlation to skin type was found. CONCLUSIONS: A multimedia program of the present design seems to be a useful tool for health promotion.
Shared learning activities aim to enhance the collaborative skills of health students and professionals in relation to both colleagues and patients. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale is used to assess such skills. The aim of this study was to validate a Danish four-subscale version of the RIPLS in a sample of 370 health-care students and 200 health professionals.
The questionnaire was translated following a two-step process, including forward and backward translations, and a pilot test. A test of internal consistency and a test-retest of reliability were performed using a web-based questionnaire.
The questionnaire was completed by 370 health care students and 200 health professionals (test) whereas the retest was completed by 203 health professionals. A full data set of first-time responses was generated from the 570 students and professionals at baseline (test). Good internal association was found between items in Positive Professional Identity (Q13-Q16), with factor loadings between 0.61 and 0.72. The confirmatory factor analyses revealed 11 items with factor loadings above 0.50, 18 below 0.50, and no items below 0.20. Weighted kappa values were between 0.20 and 0.40, 16 items with values between 0.40 and 0.60, and six items between 0.60 and 0.80; all showing p-values below 0.001.
Strong internal consistency was found for both populations. The Danish RIPLS proved a stable and reliable instrument for the Teamwork and Collaboration, Negative Professional Identity, and Positive Professional Identity subscales, while the Roles and Responsibility subscale showed some limitations. The reason behind these limitations is unclear.
This retrospective study examined the interview scores, admission grades, and optometry grades of students who received one of two types of admission interviews. The INDIV-BLIND group (N = 36) represented those students who had received an individual interview (i.e., one interviewer) for which the interviewer had no access to the candidate's file. The PANEL-ACCESS group (N = 21) was made up of those students who had received a panel interview (i.e., two interviewers) for which the interviewers had access to the candidate's file. The two groups were compared using two admission grades and seven optometry grades. Both t-test and Wilcoxon Score statistical procedures were used to test the null hypothesis (H0) that there were no significant grade differences (p
An analysis of a teaching environment with regard to interprofessional practice was done using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Medical, nursing and other health professional staff and students from two hospital units (medical and surgical) completed two surveys. The students were also interviewed. Staff differed in survey results among disciplines, with nurses and other health professionals having a more positive view of interprofessional collaboration than physicians. Student interviews supported our hypothesis that little formal or informal interprofessional education occurred during clinical rotations. Students had little understanding of the nature of collaborative behavior, and appeared to learn their discipline's attitudes and practices through tacit observation of staff behaviors. This appears to reinforce disciplinary stereotypes, and may be a significant barrier to the development of collaborative practice. These results have implications for the design of interprofessional curriculum in clinical practicums.
An inter-institutional partnership of four post-secondary institutions and a health provider formed a learning community with the goal of developing, implementing and evaluating interprofessional learning experiences in simulation-based environments. The organization, education and educational research activities of the learning community align with the institutional and instructional reforms recommended by the Lancet Commission on Health Professional Education for the 21st century. This article provides an overview of the inter-institutional collaboration, including the interprofessional simulation learning experiences, instructor development activities and preliminary results from the evaluation.
There is much support for health promotion in Canada, but not much is known about the various academic programs in this field or of their impact on the practice of community health. A census survey was conducted in 1991 to determine the career paths of graduates of the MHSc program in Health Promotion at the University of Toronto. Findings from the study indicate that the career paths of graduates change following completion of their degree. They are more likely to work in health organizations other than hospital or treatment settings, to have more responsibility and authority in their positions as reflected by changes in job titles and to utilize a wider range of health promotion strategies and methods in their work following graduation. The findings indicate that graduate training in health promotion has a positive effect on the planning, implementation and evaluation of community health programs.
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 1995 Jan-Feb;86(1):7-97619127