Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking.
We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes.
Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting.
Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community.
Cites: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Feb;8(2):388-41021556193
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2011;32:327-4721219157
Cites: Res Nurs Health. 2000 Aug;23(4):334-4010940958
Cites: Qual Health Res. 2001 May;11(3):291-211339074
Cites: Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002 Apr;26(2):120-412054329
Cites: Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002 Oct;26(5):426-3112413286
The article deals with the analysis of quality of training of paramedical personnel in the medical colleges of Kursk oblast during last ten years. It is established that during last decade the number of graduates of the Kursk medical college has a tendency to decrease. If in 2001 the college graduated 169 medical nurses, 44 feldshers, and 30 midwives (243 in total) then in 2011 graduated 121 medical nurses, 64 feldshers (185 in totals). The number of college entrants with 11th grade is decreasing against the background of increasing of number of college entrants with 9th grade. Basically, the educational institutions are completed with graduates of rural schools whose resources are limited. The graduates from urban schools have no intent to acquire the profession of medical nurse. Hence, in Kursk oblast under annual decrease of number of paramedical personnel concurrently decreases number of graduates of medical colleges. This situation makes quite problematic the making up of manpower resource both in nowadays and in near-term outlook.
This paper examines access to and use of the physician resources for ambulatory care by residents of Winnipeg and rural areas in Manitoba. Analyses were conducted on physician claims submitted to Manitoba Health in the fiscal years 1986-87 and 1991-92. The percentage of people who made contact with physicians, the number of visits per 100 residents, and the number of visits per user were used to asses changes between 1986 and 1991. There were important variations between residents of Winnipeg and the rural regions in access to and use of physicians' services across the years, and by physician specially. These variations accompanied a decrease in physician supply in the province.
In March 1985, the Swedish Parliament allocated financial resources for an action program to strengthen the position of women in the labor market. This program is based on the recognition that special efforts are needed to interest girls in technical subjects at preschool age and to support women entering occupational fields where men predominate. The program includes: special technology courses for girls in grades eight and nine; further training of teaching and vocational personnel concerning equal opportunities; an experimental training scheme for women whose jobs are threatened by new technology; supportive back-up groups or study circles for women who have opted for nontraditional occupations; and the appointment of a special study group to analyze conditions for women in connection with structural changes in industry. The Government also instructed the National Board of Education to follow the progress of upper secondary school girls taking technical lines of study and to ascertain the extent to which special supporting measures are needed.
"In this paper I tried to show how the ageing of the population influences the change in the growth of employment, employment structure, the savings ratio, economic growth and the cost of social security [in Sweden]. In the latter part of the paper I suggested a close correlation between the average marriage age of women, the total fertility rate and the work participation ratio of women." (SUMMARY IN ENG)