This study describes the development of the Tinnitus Stages of Change Questionnaire (TSOCQ), which aims to assess the readiness of tinnitus patients to change their behaviors and attitudes in relation to tinnitus. Its ability to predict treatment outcome was also investigated. One hundred and fifty-one patients with tinnitus completed the questionnaire. Through repeated principal component analyses, together with judgments of the factors' theoretical relevance, empirically and clinically meaningful scales were derived. A factor solution in accordance with the transtheoretical model (TTM) and with acceptable psychometric properties was found with the five scales of the TSOCQ labeled Precontemplation (Medical Solution), Precontemplation (Helplessness), Contemplation, Preparation and Action/Maintenance. Participants scoring high on Precontemplation (Helplessness) and low on Action/Maintenance had better treatment outcomes. In conclusion, the TSOCQ had some ability to predict treatment success, but further research is required into the utility of the TTM for understanding the rehabilitation process in tinnitus patients.
The article demonstrates necessity of implementing principle of solidary responsibility of citizenfore one's own health with purpose of health promotion and development of health care in country and all over the world. The analysis of national and international literature proved that human health in many ways depends on life style. Nowadays, population places the responsibility for one's own health to state, employers and medical personnel. The article presents main results of anonymous questionnaire survey carried out among 723 workers of municipal polyclinics. The software Statisitka was applied to determine relative frequency of occurrence of characteristic in different groups (percentage) and confidence range. The comparative analysis according the Student criterion was applied among physicians and paramedical personnel. The purpose of survey was to evaluate degree of responsibility of population for one's own health from point of view of medical personnel. It is established that 69.5% of physicians and 79.6% of paramedical personnel consider their patients responsible for implementation of prescribed recommendations. The opposite point of view have 30.5% of physicians and 20.4% of paramedical personnel. According opinion of 42.9% Of physicians and 48.9% of paramedical personnel human age has no impact on degree of one's own health caring. The physicians of polyclinics evaluate responsibility of citizenfor one's own health quite low. So, only 11. 6% of physicians and 28.6% of paramedical personnel of polyclinics provide positive reply to the asked question. The majority of physicians (37.4%) and medical nurses (34.2%) are convinced that to increase responsibility for one's own health the activities infield of health education are to be implemented. The application of the mechanism of co-payments for medical services is supported by 34.6% of physicians and 27.4% of medical nurses. The given question caused difficulties with answer among 20.2% of physicians and 32.2% of medical nurses.
There is now compelling scientific evidence that increased levels of physical activity can bring wide-ranging health benefits. These benefits can extend beyond physical health to include other positive impacts relating to mental health and personal development. The sport and recreation sector is viewed as a priority area for increasing rates of physical activity. Participation rates in organised sport have been shown to be lower in females and to decline with age, and are reduced in lower socio-economic and minority groups including people from non-English speaking and Indigenous backgrounds. It is important to determine the most effective interventions that sporting organisations can use to increase people's participation.
To update a review of all controlled studies evaluating interventions implemented through sporting organisations to increase participation.
We updated the original (2004) searches in May 2007. We searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2007); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (2004 to Week 3 April 2007); EMBASE (2004 to Week 17 2007); PsyclNFO (2004 to April Week 1 2007); CINAHL (2004 to Week 1 May 2007); SPORTDiscus (2004 to April 2007); Sociological Abstracts (2004 to 2007); Dissertation Abstracts (2004 to May 2007), and a number of freely-available online health promotion and sports-related databases. We used the internet extensively to search for studies and locate information generated by sporting bodies throughout the world.
Controlled studies evaluating any intervention designed to increase active and/ or non-active participation in sport by people of all ages. Interventions could include: mass media campaigns; information or education sessions; management or organisational change strategies; policy changes, for example to improve the socio-cultural environment to encourage people of specific age, gender or ethnicity to participate; changes to traditional or existing programs, for example club or association-initiated rule modification programs; provision of activities beyond traditional or existing programs, for example 'Come and Try' initiatives (teaser or taster programs); skill improvement programs; volunteer encouragement programs. Uncontrolled studies which met other inclusion criteria were to be reported in an annex to the review.
We assessed whether identified citations met the inclusion criteria. Two review authors independently inspected abstracts (NP, RA). We obtained full papers where necessary. As we located no controlled evaluation studies, we did not undertake data collection or analysis. We found no uncontrolled studies meeting other inclusion criteria, and therefore present no annex to the review.
Despite a thorough review of the published and unpublished literature, we found no rigorous studies evaluating the effects of interventions organised through sporting organisations to increase participation in sport.
There is an absence of high quality evidence to support interventions designed and delivered by sporting organisations to increase participation in sport. Interventions funded and conducted in this area must be linked to a rigorous evaluation strategy in order to examine overall effectiveness, socio-demographic differentials in participation and cost-effectiveness of these strategies.