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190 records – page 1 of 19.

Age gradient in the cost-effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32744
Source
Prev Med. 2000 May;30(5):401-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
B. Kopjar
T M Wickizer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health Sciences, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. branko.kopjar@samfunnsmed.uio.no
Source
Prev Med. 2000 May;30(5):401-6
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Bicycling - economics
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Craniocerebral Trauma - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Head Protective Devices - economics - standards
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the reduction in risk of head injuries associated with use of bicycle helmets among persons ages 3 to 70 and the cost-effectiveness of helmet use based on this estimated risk reduction. METHODS: To derive our cost-effectiveness estimates, we combined injury incidence data gathered through a detailed and comprehensive injury registration system in Norway, acute medical treatment cost information for the Norwegian health service, and information reported in the scientific literature regarding the health protective effects of helmet use. The analysis included all cases of head injuries reported through the registration system from 1990 through 1996. We performed an age-stratified analysis to determine the incidence of bicycle-related head injuries, the 5-year reduction in absolute risk of injury, the number needed to treat, and the cost-effectiveness of helmet use. To test the robustness of the findings to parameter assumptions, we performed sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The risk of head injury was highest among children aged 5 to 16. The greatest reduction in absolute risk of head injury, 1.0 to 1.4% over 5 years estimated helmet lifetime, occurred among children who started using a helmet between the ages of 3 and 13. Estimates indicate that it would cost approximately U.S. $2,200 in bicycle helmet expenses to prevent any one upper head injury in children ages 3-13. In contrast, it would cost U.S. $10,000-25,000 to avoid a single injury among adults. CONCLUSIONS: Bicycle safety helmets appear to be several times more cost-effective for children than adults, primarily because of the higher risk of head injury among children. Programs aiming to increase helmet use should consider the differences in injury risk and cost-effectiveness among different age groups and target their efforts accordingly.
PubMed ID
10845749 View in PubMed
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Aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257913
Source
J Safety Res. 2014 Sep;50:75-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Sigal Kaplan
Konstantinos Vavatsoulas
Carlo Giacomo Prato
Author Affiliation
Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 116B, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
Source
J Safety Res. 2014 Sep;50:75-82
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications
Bicycling - injuries
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Head Protective Devices - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Safety
Trauma Severity Indices
Young Adult
Abstract
Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011.
This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption.
Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors, while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70-80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark.
PubMed ID
25142363 View in PubMed
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Agreement statement from the 1st international rodeo research and clinical care conference: calgary, alberta, Canada (july 7-9, 2004).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174996
Source
Clin J Sport Med. 2005 May;15(3):192-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005

All terrain vehicle ownership, use, and self reported safety behaviours in rural children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205637
Source
Inj Prev. 1998 Mar;4(1):44-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1998
Author
L. Warda
T P Klassen
N. Buchan
A. Zierler
Author Affiliation
Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Inj Prev. 1998 Mar;4(1):44-9
Date
Mar-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavior
Child
Female
Head Protective Devices
Humans
Male
Manitoba
Off-Road Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Protective Clothing
Rural Population
Safety
Abstract
To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children.
Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair.
162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10-40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours.
ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9595331 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Am J Sports Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;18(5):561
Publication Type
Article
Author
B D Jordan
Source
Am J Sports Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;18(5):561
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Athletic Injuries - prevention & control
Boxing - injuries
Craniocerebral Trauma - prevention & control
Denmark
Head Protective Devices
Humans
Notes
Comment On: Am J Sports Med. 1990 Jan-Feb;18(1):98-1002301696
PubMed ID
2252100 View in PubMed
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Analysis and evolution of head injury in football.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178620
Source
Neurosurgery. 2004 Sep;55(3):649-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Michael L Levy
Burak M Ozgur
Cherisse Berry
Henry E Aryan
Michael L J Apuzzo
Author Affiliation
Division of Neurosurgery, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA. mlevy@chsd.org
Source
Neurosurgery. 2004 Sep;55(3):649-55
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Biomechanical Phenomena
Brain - physiopathology
Brain Concussion - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disease Models, Animal
Football - injuries
Head Protective Devices - standards
Humans
Recurrence
Risk factors
Sports Equipment - standards
United States
Abstract
To review head injury in football through historical, anatomic, and physiological analysis.
We obtained data from a thorough review of the literature.
The reported incidence of concussion among high school football players dropped from 19% in 1983 to 4% in 1999. During the 1997 Canadian Football League season, players with a previous loss of consciousness in football were 6.15 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous loss of consciousness (P
PubMed ID
15335432 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of football helmets under impact conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240528
Source
Am J Sports Med. 1984 May-Jun;12(3):233-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
P J Bishop
R W Norman
J W Kozey
Source
Am J Sports Med. 1984 May-Jun;12(3):233-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Craniocerebral Trauma - prevention & control
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Football
Head Protective Devices - standards
Humans
Ontario
Protective Devices - standards
Time Factors
Abstract
The impact attenuating characteristics of a sample of 81 football helmets used in competitive high school programs were determined using a Hodgson-Wayne State University (WSU) headform and a modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test protocol. The helmets, classified by liner type as suspension (37), padded-suspension (22), and padded (22) had been in use for 6 to 8 years. Each was subjected to two consecutive right rear boss impacts from a drop height of 1.5 m, onto a rigid anvil covered with a 45 durometer hardness rubber pad. Analogue signals from a triaxial accelerometer located at the center of gravity of the headform were analogue to digital (A/D) converted at 6060.6 Hz and processed on a Hewlett Packard 9845B minicomputer to yield a resultant acceleration-time curve from which peak acceleration (gpeak) and the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) were determined. The mean gpeak was 205 g for helmets with suspension liners, 165 g for helmets with padded-suspension liners, and 156 g for helmets with padded liners. Twenty-four suspension helmets and five padded or padded-suspension helmets had GSI values greater than 1200. Using a criterion of GSI1500, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 19% compared to 2% for padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. If the criterion chosen was GSI1200, the failure rate for suspension helmets was 65% as opposed to 11% for the padded and padded-suspension helmets combined. Suspension helmets are decidedly inferior under impact conditions to the padded and padded-suspension helmets.
PubMed ID
6742308 View in PubMed
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[A potential for prevention of bicycling-related head injuries]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32567
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Jun 30;120(17):1955-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-30-2000
Author
K. Alvaer
B. Kopjar
Author Affiliation
Statens institutt for folkehelse Avdeling for samfunnsmedisin, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Jun 30;120(17):1955-9
Date
Jun-30-2000
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bicycling - injuries
Child
Child, Preschool
Craniocerebral Trauma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
English Abstract
Evaluation Studies
Head Protective Devices
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bicycle helmets prevent head injury in bicycle riders. Still, only a portion of bicycle riders in Norway use bicycle helmets. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of head injuries among bicycle riders that might be prevented by increased helmet use in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian National Injury Register for the years 1995 and 1996 to estimate the number of bicycle injuries in Norway. In order to estimate the number of bicycle users and helmet users in different age groups, we used data from earlier surveys of bicycle use. Data on the effectiveness of helmet promotion interventions have been obtained from a systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: The overall annual incidence rate was 92 injuries per 100,000 bicycle users. The incidence varied with age and was highest among children. If every rider used a helmet, about 1,600 head injuries would be avoided every year, of these, 800 among children aged 0-14. Currently available helmet promotion interventions may improve the use among children by about 40%, thus preventing about 1,500 head injuries over a period of three years. Successful helmet promotion interventions use a combination of health education and helmet distribution strategies. INTERPRETATIONS: There is a significant health improvement potential in promoting bicycle helmets in Norway by implementation of evaluated modes of intervention.
Notes
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Aug 20;120(19):233110997099
PubMed ID
11008524 View in PubMed
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Are automobile head restraints used effectively?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220818
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1993 Jul;39:1584-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1993
Author
S. Lubin
J. Sehmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1993 Jul;39:1584-8
Date
Jul-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Automobile Driving
Automobiles - classification
British Columbia - epidemiology
Equipment Design
Female
Head Protective Devices - classification - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Sex Factors
Surface Properties
Abstract
Observation of 992 motor vehicles and their drivers revealed that most drivers do not have their head restraints effectively positioned. Improper positioning was more common with adjustable restraints, in commercial vehicles, and among male drivers. Some head restraints could not be adjusted properly. Improvements in headrest adjustment might help decrease morbidity in motor vehicle accidents.
Notes
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Comment In: Can Fam Physician. 1994 Mar;40:429-308199491
PubMed ID
8053992 View in PubMed
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The assessment of airway maneuvers and interventions in university Canadian football, ice hockey, and soccer players.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136307
Source
J Athl Train. 2011 Mar-Apr;46(2):117-25
Publication Type
Article
Author
J Scott Delaney
Ammar Al-Kashmiri
Penny-Jane Baylis
Tracy Troutman
Mahmood Aljufaili
José A Correa
Author Affiliation
McGill Sport Medicine Clinic and Department of Emergency Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada. j.delaney@mcgill.ca
Source
J Athl Train. 2011 Mar-Apr;46(2):117-25
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Airway Management - methods
Athletes
Athletic Injuries - therapy
Canada
Cross-Over Studies
Female
Football
Head Protective Devices
Hockey
Humans
Male
Pulmonary Ventilation
Resuscitation - methods
Soccer
Sports Equipment
Unconsciousness - therapy
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment.
To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment.
Crossover study.
University sports medicine clinic.
A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players.
Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained.
The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale.
All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players.
Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21391796 View in PubMed
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190 records – page 1 of 19.