Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
The exploitation of mineral deposits is followed by the formation of huge amounts of wastes, which have strong negative impacts on the surrounding environment. This paper presents the results of the compilation of data on general environmental problems in sites of waste disposal from mining and ore processing in Russia, based on the analysis of published data and own research. The own research of the authors relates to the estimation of the environmental hazards of mining waste using geochemical investigations and biotesting, as well as the development of the classification of technogenic mineral resources counting the reasons of the accumulation of precious components in them and findings on their environmental impact. The influence of waste disposal was determined as significant and diverse, leading to the transformation of all natural compartments surrounding waste disposal sites. The situation is especially aggravated when there are some mining and processing facilities within one relatively small territory. As a result, strong influence zones are formed. These zones have pronounced geochemical features reflecting the specificity of extracted rocks and produced raw materials. The analyzed information can serve as a basis for the development of nature protection measures for the mining waste disposal sites in Russia. Such measures using modern technical means for monitoring can minimize environmental damage from technogenic mineral formations.
In an analysis of the years 1976-1998, a 50% excess in cancer incidence was observed among residents in twelve blockhouses in Helsinki, Finland on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste.
To assess cancer risk over a 13-year period 1999-2011 among residents formerly living in houses built on a dump area.
All 1879 persons who ever lived in the former dump area were identified and the number of cancer cases in this population was obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry.
After 5 years of residence at the dump site, the standardized incidence ratio of cancer (all sites combined) was 1·32 (95% CI: 0·94-1·79) in men and 0·53 (95% CI: 0·33-0·82) for women, in comparison with the general Helsinki population (1999-2011). No significant excess cancer risks were found.
Residing on a former dump area was not found to result in an increased risk of cancer.
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The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.
Soil with high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is found at contaminated sites all over the world. Transfer of PCDD/Fs from contaminated soil to the food chain could lead to elevated human exposure. As a complement to available monitoring data, multimedia fate and exposure modeling can be applied to support risk assessment of sites with PCDD/F contaminated soil. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the CalTOX fate and exposure model for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs against measured concentrations in air, soil, grass, carrots, potatoes, milk, meat, and eggs from a contaminated site in northern Sweden. The calculated total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations agree with measurements within a factor of 10 for all exposure media but one. Results for individual congeners demonstrated that the model did not always perform well at describing key processes that mobilize PCDD/Fs out of soils, such as transfer into root crops and ingestion of soil by chickens. Uncertainty in only a small subset of input parameters affects the model output. Improved information and models describing transfer of soil particles onto leafy vegetation by rain splash and biotransfer factors for PCDD/Fs to milk, meat, and eggs are particular research needs to reduce uncertainties in model-based assessments.
Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.
Within a framework of national program on elimination of nuclear legacy, State Corporation "Rosatom" is working on rehabilitation at the temporary waste storage facility at Andreeva Bay (Northwest Center for radioactive waste "SEVRAO"--the branch of "RosRAO"), located in the North-West of Russia. In the article there is presented an analysis of the current state of supervision for radiation safety of personnel and population in the context of readiness of the regulator to the implementation of an effective oversight of radiation safety in the process of radiation-hazardous work. Presented in the article results of radiation-hygienic monitoring are an informative indicator of the effectiveness of realized rehabilitation measures and characterize the radiation environment in the surveillance zone as a normal, without the tendency to its deterioration.
This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.