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22 records – page 1 of 3.

1,3-Butadiene: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186649
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Hughes
M E Meek
M. Walker
R. Beauchamp
Author Affiliation
Existing Substances Division, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture PL0802B1, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):55-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Butadienes - metabolism - toxicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens, Environmental - toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Mutagens - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
1,3-Butadiene has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The general population in Canada is exposed to 1,3-butadiene primarily through ambient air. Inhaled 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, inducing tumors at multiple sites at all concentrations tested in all identified studies. In addition, 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in both somatic and germ cells of rodents. It also induces adverse effects in the reproductive organs of female mice at relatively low concentrations. The greater sensitivity in mice than in rats to induction of these effects by 1,3-butadiene is likely related to species differences in metabolism to active epoxide metabolites. Exposure to 1,3-butadiene in the occupational environment has been associated with the induction of leukemia; there is also some limited evidence that 1,3-butadiene is genotoxic in exposed workers. Therefore, in view of the weight of evidence of available epidemiological and toxicological data, 1,3-butadiene is considered highly likely to be carcinogenic, and likely to be genotoxic, in humans. Estimates of the potency of butadiene to induce cancer have been derived on the basis of both epidemiological investigation and bioassays in mice and rats. Potencies to induce ovarian effects have been estimated on the basis of studies in mice. Uncertainties have been delineated, and, while there are clear species differences in metabolism, estimates of potency to induce effects are considered justifiably conservative in view of the likely variability in metabolism across the population related to genetic polymorphism for enzymes for the critical metabolic pathway.
PubMed ID
12587254 View in PubMed
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An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93021
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Beketov Mikhail A
Liess Matthias
Author Affiliation
UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany. mikhail.beketov@ufz.de
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Food chain
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Invertebrates - drug effects - physiology
Organic Chemicals - toxicity
Rivers
Siberia
Species Specificity
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR(organic) (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR(organic) is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR(organic) as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants.
PubMed ID
18547697 View in PubMed
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[Biologic prophylaxis of intoxications with inorganic compounds].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177176
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2004;(9):19-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
B A Katsnel'son
T D Degtiareva
L I Privalova
O L Malykh
V B Gurvich
S V Kuz'min
O Iu Beresneva
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2004;(9):19-23
Date
2004
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Inorganic Chemicals - toxicity
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Preventive Health Services - organization & administration
Russia
Abstract
The authors summarize theoretical principles of increasing human resistence to toxic effects of inorganic compounds polluting occupational environment and habitat, exemplify practical use of this prophylactic trend.
PubMed ID
15568564 View in PubMed
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[Cytogenetic examination of the workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises and the population of the nearby territories].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128610
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Sep-Oct;(5):42-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
T V Kharchenko
L G Arzhavkina
M B Ivanov
A V Iazenok
Iu B Goverdovskii
A S Kriuchkova
D A Siniachkin
A E Sosiukin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Sep-Oct;(5):42-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Chemical Industry
Chromosome Aberrations - chemically induced - statistics & numerical data
Cytogenetic Analysis
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Lymphocytes - drug effects - ultrastructure
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Russia
Workplace - standards
Young Adult
Abstract
Cytogenetical examination was made in 49 workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises and 26 dwellers from industrial communities, who were engaged in enterprise security. Analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) in the examined groups revealed a 1.8-fold increase in total CA rates in the industrial community dwellers securing the enterprise as compared to the controls mainly due to the rise in the rate of single fragments. At the same time in the enterprise workers, the total level of CA was 2.36- and 4.1-fold greater than that in the population of industrial communities and in the controls, respectively; and it was also characterized by a broad spectrum of CA with the increased number of both chromatid and chromosomal exchange aberrations.
PubMed ID
22185001 View in PubMed
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Good jobs, green jobs, eh? A Canadian perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149622
Source
New Solut. 2009;19(2):225-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Andy King
Author Affiliation
United Steelworkers, Canada.
Source
New Solut. 2009;19(2):225-8
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Employment
Environmental health
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Labor Unions - organization & administration
Abstract
A group of Canadians pondered the dramatic change in momentum in the United States and began to think more concretely about strategies to bring unions and environmentalists together around a common green economic agenda. The campaign against toxic chemicals has proven to be a natural meeting place for labor and environmental activists. We share a common history and concern about the lack of effective regulation. The more challenging areas are about transition, the need for good jobs, and a viable economic strategy.
PubMed ID
19608521 View in PubMed
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Health risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene as a Priority Substance in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194411
Source
Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jun 1;135-136:109-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2001
Author
K. Hughes
M E Meek
M. Walker
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture PL0802B1, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2. kathy_hughes@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jun 1;135-136:109-35
Date
Jun-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Butadienes - metabolism - toxicity
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens, Environmental - toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Mutagens - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
1,3-Butadiene was included in the second list of Priority Substances to be assessed under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Potential hazards to human health were characterized on the basis of critical examination of available data on health effects in experimental animals and occupationally exposed human populations, as well as information on mode of action. Based on consideration of all relevant data identified as of April 1998, butadiene was considered highly likely to be carcinogenic to humans, and likely to be a somatic and germ cell genotoxicant in humans. In addition, butadiene may also be a reproductive toxicant in humans. Estimates of the potency of butadiene to induce these effects have been derived on the basis of quantitation of observed exposure-response relationships for the purposes of characterization of risk to the general population in Canada exposed to butadiene in the ambient environment.
PubMed ID
11397385 View in PubMed
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[Heavy metals in the environment and their impact on the organism]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31279
Source
Lik Sprava. 2002 Jul-Sep;(5-6):6-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
I V Mudryi
T K Korolenko
Source
Lik Sprava. 2002 Jul-Sep;(5-6):6-10
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Metals, Heavy - toxicity
Ukraine
Abstract
Heavy metals are chief contaminants of the environment, having an adverse effect on the population, especially on children. Results of hygienic and clinical observations suggest to us that compounds of heavy metals might cause changes in functions of metabolism and structure of some organs and systems raising the level of morbidity. It is necessary that a common system be set up of investigations, based on achievements of hygienic science both in this country and abroad; comprehensive investigations designed to study effects of heavy metals on human health be conducted; methodological approaches to the assessment of complex studies be worked out.
PubMed ID
12442507 View in PubMed
Less detail

Increased mortality from infectious pneumonia after occupational exposure to inorganic dust, metal fumes and chemicals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131972
Source
Thorax. 2011 Nov;66(11):992-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Kjell Torén
Ingemar Qvarfordt
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Bengt Järvholm
Author Affiliation
Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 414, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. kjell.toren@amm.gu.se
Source
Thorax. 2011 Nov;66(11):992-6
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Construction Industry
Dust
Epidemiologic Methods
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Male
Metals - toxicity
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Opportunistic Infections - etiology - mortality
Pneumonia, Bacterial - etiology - mortality
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal - etiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
There are epidemiological studies indicating that exposure to metal fumes is a risk factor for infectious pneumonia. Whether occupational exposure to other agents, such as inorganic dust or chemicals, also increases the risk for infectious pneumonia is not clear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether occupational exposure to respiratory pollutants and irritants increases the risk for infectious pneumonia.
Prospective cohort study. Setting Swedish male construction workers. Participants 320,143 male construction workers exposed to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, metal fumes and chemicals (organic solvents, diisocyanates and epoxi resins) or unexposed. Main outcome measures The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2003 and the main outcome measures were mortality to infectious pneumonia, lobar pneumonia or pneumococcal pneumonia. RRs were obtained by the person-years method and from Poisson regression models, adjusting for baseline values of age and smoking habits.
Among men aged 20-64 years there was increased mortality from infectious pneumonias among construction workers exposed to metal fumes (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.95), inorganic dust (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.87) and chemicals (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.22). The mortality was also increased from both lobar pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia. Among men aged 65-84 years the occupational exposure to inorganic dust and chemicals was associated with slightly increased mortality from infectious pneumonia. Among groups with mutually exclusive exposures there was increased mortality from infectious pneumonias among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust, but not among those exposed to wood dust or chemicals. There were no cases among workers exposed only to metal fumes.
Our findings indicate that exposure to inorganic dust increases the mortality from infectious pneumonias, especially lobar pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia. The mechanism is unclear, but the effect may be mediated through induced airways inflammation.
PubMed ID
21856701 View in PubMed
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Inhaled formaldehyde: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186648
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):85-114
Publication Type
Article
Author
R G Liteplo
M E Meek
Author Affiliation
Existing Substances Division, Safe Environments Program, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):85-114
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Formaldehyde - toxicity
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Mutagens - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
Formaldehyde has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Probabilistic estimates of exposure of the general population in Canada to formaldehyde in ambient and indoor air are presented. Critical health effects include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumors in the upper respiratory tract (the nasal region in rodents and potentially the lungs of humans). The majority of the general population is exposed to airborne concentrations of formaldehyde less than those typically associated with sensory irritation (i.e., 0.1 mg/m3). Based primarily upon data derived from laboratory studies, the inhalation of formaldehyde under conditions that induce cytotoxicity and sustained regenerative proliferation within the respiratory tract is considered to present a carcinogenic hazard to humans. At airborne levels for which the prevalence of sensory irritation is minimal (i.e., 0.1 mg/m3), risks of respiratory-tract cancers for the general population estimated on the basis of a biologically motivated case-specific model are exceedingly low. This biologically motivated case-specific model incorporates two-stage clonal expansion and is supported by dosimetry calculations from computational fluid dynamics analyses of formaldehyde flux in various regions of the nose and single-path modeling for the lower respiratory tract. The degree of confidence in the underlying database and uncertainties in estimates of exposure and in characterization of hazard and dose response are delineated.
PubMed ID
12587255 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.