The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
The data reflecting the state-of-the-art of studies into soil pollution with heavy metals and radionuclides in the context of hygienic evaluation of the environment are presented. Soil pollution with heavy metals was shown to be characterized by natural heterogeneity, a wide range of elements, such as technogenic pollutants, and by the local (mosaic) distribution. The degree of pollution was generally not 2-3 times higher than the maximum allowable concentrations. Soil pollution with radionuclide elements is associated with human activities and confined to the western areas of the region, and also noted for patchiness.
In the study of the complex action of environmental factors the important step is the consideration of the multi-component composition of chemical substances which affect the human in the real conditions of the environmental pollution. In the study of complex action of environmental factors it is expedient to use the algorithm of chemical analytical studies, envisaging the implementation of the identity analysis with the quantitative assessment ofpossibly the fullest array of pollutants and the subsequent selection of leading indices on the base of the evaluation of the identified multi-component composition ofthe pollution according to the degree of their hygienic significance in view of the proposed set of criteria.
Market baskets containing sixty food items included in the average Swedish diet were purchased from three shops in four major Swedish cities during autumn 1987. Food items were selected on the basis of food-balance-sheet data. Freeze-dried homogenates representative of each city were analysed for twelve essential or toxic mineral elements. The energy content of the market baskets (11.5 MJ) corresponded to the reference value for male adults. At this energy level the contents of calcium (1180 mg), magnesium (300 mg), iron (16 mg), zinc (12 mg) and selenium (44 micrograms) were above or close to the Swedish recommended daily intakes. The contents of manganese (3.7 mg) and molybdenum (150 micrograms) were within and that of copper (1.2 mg) was below the safe and adequate intake values given in the US recommended dietary allowance (Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council, 1989). The content of nickel was 82 micrograms. The contents of lead (17 micrograms), cadmium (12 micrograms) and mercury (1.8 micrograms) in the daily diet were low compared with the provisional tolerable intakes set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (World Health Organization, 1972, 1989). The market-basket contents of Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn calculated from values in the Swedish food composition tables were close to the analysed values, indicating that the Swedish food tables provide relevant information for the estimation of the dietary supply of these elements.
The article covers study of major exogenic environmental factors influence on skin melanoma occurrence in Samara region, through application of various statistic analysis methods. The results prove increase in skin melanoma incidence in Samara region, that is characteristic for Russian population in general. Strong correlation is seen with increase of industrial waste volume in the region and with public nutrition structure changes.
Current occupational exposures to chemical agents were assessed as part of an epidemiological study pertaining to the cancer and mortality patterns of Ontario construction workers. The task-based exposure assessment involved members from nine construction trade unions. Air samples were taken using personal sampling pumps and collection media. A DustTrak direct-reading particulate monitor was also employed. Exposure assessments included measurements of airborne respirable, inhalable, total, and silica dust; solvents; metals; asbestos; diesel exhaust and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF). In total, 396 single- or multi-component (filter/tube), 798 direct-reading, and 71 bulk samples were collected. The results showed that Ontario construction workers are exposed to potentially hazardous levels of chemical agents. The findings are similar to those reported by other researchers, except for silica exposure. In our study, silica exposure is much lower than reported elsewhere. The difficulty associated with assessing construction workers' exposures is highlighted.
A set of devices for extraction of air samples to detect chemical hazards and biologic aerosols is designed and launched into production. The devices are compact, precise (error is +/- 3 - +/- 10%) and handy, could be calibrated and tested by the same equipment, give conventional results. Samples extraction devices meet the requirements of Russian standards on protection from, control, prevention and liquidation of events caused by chemical and biologic hazards. The devices are metrologically assured, certified, included into a State Register, widely put into practice of Russian Sanitary, Epidemiologic and Ecologic Supervision.
The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water.
Mercury (Hg) release from dental offices has become an acute issue for the dental profession and has resulted in efforts by regulators to mandate both the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) as well as the installation of amalgam separators. Concern has been expressed by some regarding the efficacy of amalgam separators in reducing the Hg loads to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Data from several Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) serving areas with installed bases of separators suggest these devices can substantially reduce Hg burdens to WWTPs. The data consists of Hg levels in sewer sludge (biosolids) and in some cases includes Hg concentrations in WWTP influent and effluent. Data comes from various geographical locations, and suggest separators can have a positive effect in reducing the amount of Hg reaching WWTPs.