The authors suggested criteria of translocated pollution: scale, intensity, jeopardy, with consideration of dissemination mechanism--aerodynamic, water migration, terminal. The article covers classification of translocated pollution. Using methodology of risk evaluation, the authors assessed additional morbidity cases due to translocated pollution.
The established tense ecological situation in the town of Orsk presents a serious human threat. The use of methods for assessing the risk has allowed the authors to determine the values of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks. Due to the influence of all environments polluted by industrial emissions, the total annual carcinogenic risk is 2.31 cases for the adult population of the town and 0.49 for its children. The greatest carcinogenic risk is associated with arsenic in water and foodstuffs, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and formaldehyde in the air. The high concentrations of dust, phenol, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon oxide cause a major damage to human health. The established specific values of this risk are of relative significance.
Nizhnekamsk is marked not only high by levels of ambient air pollution, but also by the deteriorated qualitative composition of portable water. The present paper gives the results of assessment of the mutagenic activity of tap water. A test system of biological evaluation of portable water is proposed.
The data reflecting the state-of-the-art of studies into soil pollution with heavy metals and radionuclides in the context of hygienic evaluation of the environment are presented. Soil pollution with heavy metals was shown to be characterized by natural heterogeneity, a wide range of elements, such as technogenic pollutants, and by the local (mosaic) distribution. The degree of pollution was generally not 2-3 times higher than the maximum allowable concentrations. Soil pollution with radionuclide elements is associated with human activities and confined to the western areas of the region, and also noted for patchiness.
OBJECTIVES. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are the one of the most sensitive biomarikers of biological effects from the hazardous environmental exposure. In this relation the comparison of cytogenetical indices in persons, exposed to the complex of factors of chemically hazard enterprises, with the presence of occupationally caused diseases seems to be very perspective for the understanding of the role of the contribution of genotoxical impact of occupational factors into staff morbidity. METHODS. Cytogenetical analysis was performed in 138 employees of chemically hazardous enterprises, including 84 patients, who need for establishment of the causation of diseases with the work in conditions of chemical plant and 54 persons without need for hospitalization according to results of the previous examination. Comparison group was consisted of 55 persons. There was performed the comparison of cytogenetical indices and commensuration of ratios of persons with individual high CAs levels and also carriers of exchange aberrations of chromosomal type in different groups of examined cases. RESULTS. There was shown statistically significant increase of the rate of CAs level including unexpectedly high level of dicentric and ring chromosomes in the group of 84 hospitalized patients. There was revealed statistically significant gain in the share of persons with CAs rate more then 5% (p
Descriptive and analytical study of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been first-ever carried out in population of Volgograd city, South region of Russian Federation. At the period of the study (1996-2000) the population was estimated as 814 100 adult persons. An average age-adjusted level of MS prevalence was 31.9 per 100,000, MS incidence--9.8, mortality 1,8. Thus, the city is at a moderate risk for MS, however the incidence of the disease appeared to be rather high that indicates a further increase of MS patients number in this population. The highest level of MS prevalence was registered in two districts with poor ecological characteristics and numerous industries: Krasnoarmeysky (52.4 per 100,000 persons) and Krasnooktiabrsky (46.4). An analytical case-control study included data collected from 178 pairs (73.6% female) of MS patients and controls matched for age, sex and ethnic origin. Significant differences between patients and controls were detected as follows: patients more often had blue eyes as compared to dark ones; in the patient group mother's age at birth was above 30 years; patients more often lived near chemical and/or oil factories at age before 15 years; they more often reported a presence of stress factors in the family and chronic tonsillitis. Association with other factors, including infections, nutrition, acute and chronic diseases, poisoning, traumas, family history of different diseases, contact with animals etc, has not been found. A possible association between environmental factors and features of MS course were analyzed. Living near chemical factories at age before 15 was associated with more active MS course, i.e. high frequency of progressive course, short period from MS onset to confirmed EDSS=3, short duration of first remission. The same, though less significant, influence may exert the presence of herpes infection and chronic tonsillitis at age under 15.
The article covers study of major exogenic environmental factors influence on skin melanoma occurrence in Samara region, through application of various statistic analysis methods. The results prove increase in skin melanoma incidence in Samara region, that is characteristic for Russian population in general. Strong correlation is seen with increase of industrial waste volume in the region and with public nutrition structure changes.