The established tense ecological situation in the town of Orsk presents a serious human threat. The use of methods for assessing the risk has allowed the authors to determine the values of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks. Due to the influence of all environments polluted by industrial emissions, the total annual carcinogenic risk is 2.31 cases for the adult population of the town and 0.49 for its children. The greatest carcinogenic risk is associated with arsenic in water and foodstuffs, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and formaldehyde in the air. The high concentrations of dust, phenol, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon oxide cause a major damage to human health. The established specific values of this risk are of relative significance.
Improving the chemoanalytical quality control of the urban environment requires transition from the assessment considering only certain things determined by target analyses to the comprehensive assessment based on monitoring with the identification of the maximally complete spectra of substances contained in the environmental objects and coming from the sources of pollution, by using the appropriate algorithm; identification, quantifying a spectrum of pollutants as completely as possible; selection of the leading indices, by evaluating the detected composition of pollutions from the degree of their hygienic significance, by taking into account a set of criteria (detection rate, concentrations, group affiliation, specificity for a nearby source of pollution in the check of drinking water, a capacity for transformation, possible formation of more toxic transformation products); and monitoring through target tests by the chosen leading indices.
The paper deals with the situation associated with some substances, as described by the UNEP/Chemicals as priority persistent toxic, in the Russian Federation. Among them, lead was shown to head the list of them and its blood levels may be greater than the recommended allowable level of 10 micrograms/dl in almost 2 million children in different regions of the country. Exposure to mercury and cadmium is of local character, but some regions (the Irkutsk Region, Bashkiria, Vladikavkaz, V. Pyshma) showed specific changes in human health. Among persistent organic pollutants (POPs) there are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) extensively used in the transformers, which present the greatest hazard. These substances were found to be of significance as a risk factor (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-1.3) for female infertility in the town of Serpukhov where PCB-containing capacitors were manufactured. Reproductive and endocrine disorders (higher incidence of abortions, infertility, late gestoses, cryptorchidism, retarded male sexual development, etc.) are common in the residents of Chapaevsk (Samara Region), one of the world's most dioxin-contaminated towns. In the female residents of this town, the highest global concentrations of dioxins were recorded in the breast milk and blood (43.3 and 24-75 pg TEQ/g fat, respectively). The ambient air in the most industrial towns of Russia was demonstrated to contain increased benz(a)pyrene, but there is very little analytical environmental and epidemiological evidence for the carcinogenic effect of these substances by taking into account of the factor of smoking. The population of many cities and towns in Russia is at risk for consumption of drinking water containing excess water disinfection products. Special preventive programs to reduce the adverse effects of the above persistent toxic agents should be elaborated and introduced.
OBJECTIVES. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are the one of the most sensitive biomarikers of biological effects from the hazardous environmental exposure. In this relation the comparison of cytogenetical indices in persons, exposed to the complex of factors of chemically hazard enterprises, with the presence of occupationally caused diseases seems to be very perspective for the understanding of the role of the contribution of genotoxical impact of occupational factors into staff morbidity. METHODS. Cytogenetical analysis was performed in 138 employees of chemically hazardous enterprises, including 84 patients, who need for establishment of the causation of diseases with the work in conditions of chemical plant and 54 persons without need for hospitalization according to results of the previous examination. Comparison group was consisted of 55 persons. There was performed the comparison of cytogenetical indices and commensuration of ratios of persons with individual high CAs levels and also carriers of exchange aberrations of chromosomal type in different groups of examined cases. RESULTS. There was shown statistically significant increase of the rate of CAs level including unexpectedly high level of dicentric and ring chromosomes in the group of 84 hospitalized patients. There was revealed statistically significant gain in the share of persons with CAs rate more then 5% (p
The authors studied the degree of ambient air and soil pollution with technogenically induced chemical substances in Krivoi Rog in 1996-2001. Priority pollutants were identified in the areas with different forms of technogenic discharge and on the development land. The widest range of pollutants and the highest morbidity rates were established at the site near a metallurgic plant and a by-product coke plant. The immunological parameters were studied in infants of the first year of life, who had been born full-term with intrauterine developmental retardation. Decreased basic immunological parameters were found in both this category of infants and healthy infants of the same age.
Health anomalies in children are induced by environmental contamination with pollutants specific for this region due to the long-term running of the Orenburg gas-chemical complex. On assessing the health hazard of exposure to non-carcinogenic chemicals, the authors used such variable as the hazard coefficient. Estimations indicated that the hazard coefficient of non-carcinogenic effects was greater than the allowable level with reference to hydrogen sulfide in all areas under study, as shown by the data of stationary posts. According to the data of route studies, the hazard coefficient exceeded 1 with reference to hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide. Thus, upon exposure to specific air pollutants, such hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide, even at the concentrations below the maximum allowable concentration there is an increased hazard of their toxic effect on the population.
There was performed an analysis of the working conditions and health status of workers of the chemical enterprise. In male electrical staff exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of 50 Hz and chemicals, according to data of periodic medical examinations there was revealed statistically higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases and autonomic disorders. The obtained preliminary results allow to suggest the upsurge of the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in response to the combined effects of EMF of 50 Hz and chemicals.
A questionnaire survey was made to study the opinion of residents in the area of the Yamashev-Dekabristy main road, the joint stock company Tasma-Holding, the commercial joint stock Orgsintez on their health status and on the source of ambient air pollution and the opinion of those living in Gorki-I, an ecologically pure area. The respondents were asked to answer the questions on the unfavourable impact of environmental factors on human health (respondents' painful sensations). The questions also concerned such factors as noise, odour, dust in relation to the place of residence near the main road or an industrial enterprise. The results of the questionnaire survey suggest that environmental pollution exerts an adverse effect on human health particularly in the areas where industrial enterprises and large main roads are located. The findings serve as the basis for introduction of ecological tension-reducing measures.
The data of hygienic monitoring of the Saint Petersburg environment suggest that the soil of the megapolis is greatly polluted with heavy metals among which lead is of priority. The studies performed indicate that under the environmental and hygienic conditions, the level of lead in the hair of children is a qualitative and quantitative criterion for the negative impact of chemical pollution of the environment. The threshold level at which there are higher morbidity rates in children is 5.8 micrograms/g. The findings suggest that there is a reduction in the earlier accepted critical level 8 micrograms/g. (V. Lukovenko, 1990; B.A. Revich, 1999). When its level is 8 micrograms/g, the children are found to have retarded mental and physical development. The results of examination of the nonspecific resistance system in children living under the conditions of the megapolis show that the level of nonspecific defense decreases when the hair content of lead is 5 micrograms/g.