Anthropogenic acute chemical exposures have become an important socioeconomic and environmental factor on the national, regional and global level. They present an actual or potential danger to vital activity and health of large population groups and normal operation of the Biosphere and natural components. Hence a problem of prevention and elimination of acute technogenic exposures hazardous for human health has expanded beyond the medical competence and grown to a major environmental issue.
To examine efficacy of the drug essliver-forte in patients with chronic intoxication by a complex of such toxicants as soluble and unsoluble compounds of uranium, lead and mercury.
The examination of bilirubin, synthesis of proteins and enzyme production by the liver, activity of free radical lipid oxidation and antioxidant defence was conducted in 42 persons (mean age 66.4 +/- 4.2 years) occupationally exposed to chemicals (compounds of uranium, lead and mercury) for 12.6 +/- 1.8 years. The patients were divided into two equal groups: patients of group 1 received standard therapy with enterosorbents, cerebral angioprotectors and alpha-tocopherol; patients of group 2 instead of alpha-tocopherol were given essliver-forte (2 capsules twice a day).
Patients of group 2 had significantly less frequent complaints for fatigue, anxiety, dyspnea, sleep disorders; improvement was observed in peripheral blood counts, in concentrations of alpha 2- and gamma-globulins, sulfhydril and catalase activity of erythrocytes; transaminase activity and intensity of saponin hemolysis went down.
Essliver-forte is effective in persons occupationally exposed to chemicals.
Poisonings constitute a serious health problem in Norway. The objective of the study was to analyse cases of poisoning reported to out-of-hours services and any changes that may have occurred over a ten-year period.
The material consists of reimbursement claims from all doctors on out-of-hours duty in Norway in the period 2006???15. Poisonings were defined as ICPC diagnostic codes A84 (poisoning by medical agent), A86 (toxic effect non-medicinal substance) or P16 (acute alcohol abuse).
The contact rate due to poisonings increased from 221 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2006 to 297 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2015. For the age group 1???2 years, the contact rate per 100 000 inhabitants dropped from 469 to 223, for the age group 15???25 it rose from 523 to 719, and for the age group 53???59 it rose from 178 to 339. The highest contact rate was found among women aged 15???25 (785 per 100 000 inhabitants). This group also had the highest contact rate caused by poisoning by a medical agent (238 per 100 000 inhabitants). In the age group 15???25 years, altogether 63% of the poisonings occurred during the night.
The frequency of contact with out-of-hours services because of poisoning is generally increasing, although a strong decline is observed among small children. Adolescents, and young women in particular, stand out in suffering frequent cases of poisoning.
The principal purpose of this article is to examine selected Alaskan occupational and environmental health problems and associated issues. Specifically, we focus on two traditional areas of interest in occupational and environmental health: 1) Job-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities, and 2) accidental spills and uncontrolled waste sites involving hazardous materials. In 1986 the Alaska Department of Labor reported 13,154 recordable occupational injuries and illnesses among workers in the private sector. The injury rate for private sector workers was 10.2 cases per 100, compared to a rate of 7.9 for the U.S. private sector as a whole. There are approximately 550 known hazardous waste sites in Alaska identified by military, other federal, or state sources. One study documents 1,330 hazardous materials incidents in Alaska during a one year period. Effective public health policy for these occupational and environmental health hazards requires the development of an adequate database and a specific plan of action for the future.
BACKGROUND: The Poisons Information Centre receives many inquiries about acute exposures to chemical products. Our aim was to characterise the frequency and severity of such exposures and to raise awareness of chemicals that rarely cause poisoning, but may lead to serious systemic toxicity even in small amounts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from inquiries to the Poisons Information Centre in the period 2004-2006 and from the Product Register on the use of selected chemicals. RESULTS: In 2004-2006, the Poisons Information Centre received 35,802 inquiries regarding acute exposures to chemicals or chemical products. Most of the exposures (72%) were assessed as non-toxic or involving risk of minor poisoning, while only 7.8% were assessed as involving risk of severe poisoning. The substances most frequently involved were cleaning agents, cosmetics/personal care products and hydrocarbon fuels, whereas risk of severe poisoning is related to alkali and hydrocarbon exposures. Poisonings with hydrofluoric acid and glycols/glycol ethers are rare, but the outcome is often severe. As many as 84% of the hydrofluoric acid exposures and 36% of the ingestions of ethylene glycol by children were assessed as involving risk of moderate or severe poisoning. INTERPRETATION: Exposure to chemicals or chemical products is frequent, but rarely leads to severe poisonings. Data from inquiries to the Poisons Information Centre are representative of the chemical exposure conditions. It is important to have detailed product information readily available to assure correct treatment after exposure incidents.
Neurobehavioral impairment is among the earliest indicators of a toxic insult on the nervous system. Neurobehavioral tests measure behavior impairment by noninvasive procedures that assess various performance and personality changes. Neurobehavioral tests have been used on groups of workers included in epidemiologic research studies; however, their suitability for an ongoing medical surveillance program for workers exposed to neurotoxic agents has not been evaluated. In Ontario, Canada, a set of validity criteria must be met to determine whether a medical procedure may be prescribed for a specific medical surveillance program. The evaluative criteria are standards for judging the desirability of a procedure based on social values and scientific considerations. In this paper, various studies using neurobehavioral tests are reviewed, and the validity of using these procedures for medical surveillance is evaluated by applying the Ontario evaluation criteria. The conclusion is that neurobehavioral tests are useful for well-controlled, cross-sectional studies, but they do not yet meet the validity criteria for procedures prescribed in an ongoing medical surveillance program for workers exposed to neurotoxic agents.
Most occupational and environmental research describes associations between specific occupational and environmental hazards and health outcomes, with little information available on population-level exposure, especially among unique subpopulations. The authors describe the prevalence of self-reported lifetime exposure to nine occupational and environmental hazards among 11,326 American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in the Southwest U.S. and Alaska. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN people in Alaska were petroleum products, military chemicals, and asbestos. The top three hazards experienced by AI/AN living in the Southwest U.S. were pesticides, petroleum, and welding/silversmithing. The study described here found that male sex, lower educational attainment, AI/AN language use, and living in the Southwest U.S. (vs. Alaska) were all associated with an increased likelihood of hazard exposure. The authors' study provides baseline data to facilitate future exposure-response analyses. Future studies should measure dose and duration as well as environmental hazards that occur in community settings.