Skip header and navigation

Refine By

10 records – page 1 of 1.

[Characteristics of the equivalent equilibrium volume activity of thoron in the buildings of Moscow].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179649
Source
Gig Sanit. 2004 May-Jun;(3):27-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
O G Pol'skii
V S Rogalis
A I Anan'ev
I F Golubkova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2004 May-Jun;(3):27-30
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Building Codes - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Catchment Area (Health)
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Models, Statistical
Radon - adverse effects
Russia
Abstract
The introduction of NRS-99 has consolidated the need of controlling the equivalent equilibrium volume activity of thoron (EEVATn) and radon (EEVARn) in the air of dwelling, industrial, and public buildings. Analysis of more than 1000 values of EEVATn measured in parallel with EEVARn, which was based on the well-known mechanisms of accumulation of radon, thoron and their derivatives in the air of premises made it possible to approximate the correlation between EEVATn and radon EEVARn and to estimate the value of radon EEVATn without its measurement several hours after air sampling.
PubMed ID
15197852 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Chemical substances in the Russian urban environment: hazard to human health and prospects for its prevention].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188171
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2002;(9):45-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
B A Revich
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2002;(9):45-9
Date
2002
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances
Health promotion
Health status
Humans
Russia
Urban Population
Abstract
The paper deals with the situation associated with some substances, as described by the UNEP/Chemicals as priority persistent toxic, in the Russian Federation. Among them, lead was shown to head the list of them and its blood levels may be greater than the recommended allowable level of 10 micrograms/dl in almost 2 million children in different regions of the country. Exposure to mercury and cadmium is of local character, but some regions (the Irkutsk Region, Bashkiria, Vladikavkaz, V. Pyshma) showed specific changes in human health. Among persistent organic pollutants (POPs) there are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) extensively used in the transformers, which present the greatest hazard. These substances were found to be of significance as a risk factor (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-1.3) for female infertility in the town of Serpukhov where PCB-containing capacitors were manufactured. Reproductive and endocrine disorders (higher incidence of abortions, infertility, late gestoses, cryptorchidism, retarded male sexual development, etc.) are common in the residents of Chapaevsk (Samara Region), one of the world's most dioxin-contaminated towns. In the female residents of this town, the highest global concentrations of dioxins were recorded in the breast milk and blood (43.3 and 24-75 pg TEQ/g fat, respectively). The ambient air in the most industrial towns of Russia was demonstrated to contain increased benz(a)pyrene, but there is very little analytical environmental and epidemiological evidence for the carcinogenic effect of these substances by taking into account of the factor of smoking. The population of many cities and towns in Russia is at risk for consumption of drinking water containing excess water disinfection products. Special preventive programs to reduce the adverse effects of the above persistent toxic agents should be elaborated and introduced.
PubMed ID
12380286 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Classification of hazards of water pollutants].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168937
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Mar-Apr;(2):5-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
G N Krasovskii
N A Egorova
I I Bykov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Mar-Apr;(2):5-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - classification
Humans
Russia
Water Pollutants - classification
Abstract
The paper considers materials on the substantiation of criteria, indices, and their gradation for a new variant of the hygienic classification of hazards of water-contaminating substances. Emphasis is placed on the significance of a ratio of the maximally inactive concentrations (MIC) in terms of the toxicological sign of harmfulness to the threshold concentrations (TC) in terms of their effects on the organoleptic properties of water and on the general sanitary regime of water reservoirs. Only two types of late effects of substances, which are of individual significance for classification, such as carcinogenicity and reproductive effects, are identified. It is stated that a class of hazard may be toughened for high-stable substances, but neither the stability nor any other indices of the potential hazard of substances is the ground for reducing their hygienic standards in water.
PubMed ID
16758809 View in PubMed
Less detail

Control of chemicals in Sweden: an example of misuse of the "precautionary principle".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30535
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004 Feb;57(2):107-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Robert Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Genetic and Cellular Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden. robert.nilsson@dbb.su.se
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004 Feb;57(2):107-17
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environment
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Politics
Public Opinion
Risk assessment
Social Conditions
Societies, Scientific
Sweden
Abstract
With a background in biochemistry and radiation biology, I started to get involved in the control of chemicals area by battling the use of alkyl-mercury compounds in Swedish agriculture during the years 1964-1965 (C.-G. Ros?n, H. Ackefors, and R. Nilsson, 1966, Seed dressing compounds based on organic mercury-economic aspects and health hazards, Svensk Kemisk Tidskrift 78, 8-19), and subsequently I acted as the sole technical advisor to the plaintiffs for the thalidomide children in Sweden for 4 years, ending in a 100 million US dollar (present value) settlement with the producers in 1969 (H. Sj?str?m and R. Nilsson, 1991, Thalidomide and the Power of the Drug Companies, Penguin, London, Feltrinelli, Milano, Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo Fisher Verlag, Berlin). I joined the Swedish EPA in 1974 and became head of the toxicological unit of the Products Control Division, where I was instrumental inter alia in pushing through regulations on reductions of lead in gasoline as well as the first general restrictions in world on the use of cadmium (R. Nilsson, 1989, Cadmium-an Analysis of Swedish Regulatory Experience, Report to the OECD Chemicals Group and Management Committee, January 1989). Since 1986 responsibility for control of chemicals was largely taken over from the Swedish EPA by the newly created National Chemicals Inspectorate (KEMI), an agency that employs me in the capacity of toxicologist. In between, I have been working for the OECD Chemicals Program as well as for WHO (IPCS) in various capacities and as a consultant in risk assessment for the US chemical industry under the Superfund Program. I was also associated with the Ministries of Environment of the governments of Iran and India. With respect to the latter, part of my recommendations were incorporated in the new Indian laws and regulations on chemicals that were issued subsequent to the Bhopal disaster (R. Nilsson, 1988, Procedures and Safeguards for Notification and Handling of Hazardous Chemicals in India, Report to WHO South-East Asia Region, SEA/EH/391, April 1988). As a consequence of a decreasing role for science in regulatory affairs, and a corresponding increasing influence from politics, for the past 8 years I have devoted myself mainly to research-oriented activities in my capacity as adjunct professor of molecular toxicology and risk assessment at the Stockholm University. In international collaboration, my projects have been supported by the Directorate General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities, the US Chemical Manufacturers' Association, the Coulston Foundation (Alamogordo, State of New Mexico), L'Oreal, Merck Co., and in the past to a limited extent also by my own agency, the National Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate. However, my position as member of the executive board for the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology in the United States, which I held for 5 years, as well as my role as technical advisor in products liability litigation, reflects my continued interest in the "politics of chemical risk." In this context my critical comments with respect to the current regulatory policy for control of chemicals have caused considerable concern within the Swedish regulatory establishment (R. Nilsson, M. Tasheva, and B. Jaeger, 1993. Why different regulatory decisions when the scientific information base is similar? I. Human risk assessment, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 17, 292-332; R. Nilsson, 1994, Problems in the regulation of carcinogenic chemicals in an international perspective. III. Critical assessment of regulatory approaches. Rev. Int. Contam. Ambiental, M?xico City, 10, 99-199; R. Nilsson, 1998, Integrating Sweden into the European Union: Problems concerning chemicals control. In The Politics of Chemical Risk-Scenarios for a Regulatory Future, R. Bal and Halffman, Eds, pp. 159-171, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht).
PubMed ID
14759655 View in PubMed
Less detail

Free trade and occupational health policy: an argument for health and safety across the North American workplace.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216993
Source
Salud Publica Mex. 1994 Nov-Dec;36(6):578-96
Publication Type
Article
Author
M J McGuinness
Author Affiliation
East Palo Alto Community Law Project, California.
Source
Salud Publica Mex. 1994 Nov-Dec;36(6):578-96
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Canada
Commerce
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
European Union
Female
Hazardous Substances
Hazardous Waste
Human Rights
Humans
International Cooperation
Male
Mexico
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - etiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
United States
United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Abstract
This article considers the argument that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) would encourage US and Canadian industry to relocate their hazardous manufacturing operations to Mexico. Proponents of this view believe that this industrial flight south would worsen working conditions in Mexico as well as lower occupational health and safety standards in the US and Canada. In evaluating this argument, the article examines working conditions in US-owned factories in the Mexican maquiladora zone, reviews the current occupational health and safety regulatory structure in Mexico, and considers those institutions established by the European Community to protect workers against the flight of hazardous industries. The article concludes that the harmonization of labor norms throughout North American and the establishment of a functional North American regulatory structure following the precedents set by the European Community are necessary steps to ensure that NAFTA does not produce the feared flight of hazardous industries to Mexico nor degrade the health of workers in Mexico, Canada, or the US.
PubMed ID
7892635 View in PubMed
Less detail

Good jobs, green jobs, eh? A Canadian perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149622
Source
New Solut. 2009;19(2):225-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Andy King
Author Affiliation
United Steelworkers, Canada.
Source
New Solut. 2009;19(2):225-8
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Employment
Environmental health
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Labor Unions - organization & administration
Abstract
A group of Canadians pondered the dramatic change in momentum in the United States and began to think more concretely about strategies to bring unions and environmentalists together around a common green economic agenda. The campaign against toxic chemicals has proven to be a natural meeting place for labor and environmental activists. We share a common history and concern about the lack of effective regulation. The more challenging areas are about transition, the need for good jobs, and a viable economic strategy.
PubMed ID
19608521 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Method of determination of ecologically induced actual risk for human health and the degree of stress in medical and ecological situations].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205141
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1998;(5):13-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
S V Nagornyi
V G Maimulov
I N Malevannyi
S I Savel'ev
E A Tsibul'skaia
E V Oleinikova
V P Tidgen
S A Gorbanev
A Iu Lomtev
V G Kon'kov
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1998;(5):13-6
Date
1998
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Ecology
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Female
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Risk factors
Russia
Urban Health - standards
Abstract
Lipetsk town area was ranked according to maximal or minimal actual risk for public health (with consideration of medical and ecologic situation if influenced by technogenic hazards. That ranking enables to suggest municipal measures aimed at protection of population of ecologic hazards.
PubMed ID
9662928 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jul;65(7):562-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011

Selecting high-priority hazardous chemicals for tri-national control: a maximum-utility method applied to Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197677
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):220-37
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Santos-Burgoa
T J Downs
Author Affiliation
Instituto de Salud Ambiente y Trabajo (ISAT), Cerrada del Convento 48A, Oficina H-D&comma Sta. Ursula Xitla, Tlalpan 14420, Mexico.
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):220-37
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Body Burden
Canada
Decision Trees
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Health Policy
Health Priorities - organization & administration
Humans
International Cooperation
Mexico
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Probability
Public Health Practice
Regional Medical Programs - organization & administration
Risk Management
United States
Abstract
The dispersion of persistent, bioaccumulative toxic chemicals poses risks to human health and the integrity of the ecosystem on a continental scale. Mexico, the United States, and Canada sought to add two pollutants to an existing list of four subject to North American Regional Action Plans (chlordane, DDT, mercury, PCBs). Mexican negotiators used results from an internal selection process, applying 14 criteria in five categories-physicochemical, health-endpoint, data quality/quantity, exposure potential, and control feasibility-to a baseline group of over 4,700 substances. Using policy analysis by the multiattribute maximum-utility method, progressive application of criteria and weighting algorithms acted like successive filters to identify priority lists of 15 and 7 substances/substance groups for Mexico. The 15 are: 1) benzo-a-pyrene (1 other PAHs); 2) cadmium; 3) heptachlor; 4) hexachlorobenzene; 5) lead; 6) lindane (+ other HCH isomers); 7) 2,3, 7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (&plus other PCDDs); 8) aldrin; 9) arsenic; 10) chromium; 11) carbon tetrachloride; 12) 3-3'-dichlorobenzidine; 13) dieldrin; 14) nickel; and 15) toxaphene. The first seven are the priority list of seven.
PubMed ID
10926727 View in PubMed
Less detail

10 records – page 1 of 1.