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29 records – page 1 of 3.

An analytical approach for reducing workplace health hazards through substitution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222006
Source
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Jan;54(1):36-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1993
Author
G. Goldschmidt
Author Affiliation
Ballerup BST Center, Herlev, Denmark.
Source
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Jan;54(1):36-43
Date
Jan-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Decision Support Techniques
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Occupational Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Organizational Culture
Abstract
Substitution for a harmful chemical implies that the desired function is maintained without using the harmful chemical in question. Improvement can be achieved if a less harmful chemical can be used or the same function obtained by changing the process and eliminating the harmful chemical agent. In 1982, Denmark introduced an authority regulation requiring substitution if functional and economical alternatives exist. This paper summarizes the results of 162 examples of substitution investigated by the Danish Occupational Health Services. The identification and implementation of substitution alternatives is described as an iterative process with seven distinct steps. Several tools that are useful in evaluating alternatives are described, including Hansen solubility parameters and vapor hazard ratios. In addition to the technical issues surrounding substitution, this paper describes the social interactions necessary to include all affected individuals, along with those having the proper expertise in the decision-making process. The use of the described methods may result in a safer work-place by eliminating certain hazardous chemicals or practices that have historically been used in specific industries.
PubMed ID
8470622 View in PubMed
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An ecological study of industry in a high-risk region of multiple sclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130644
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2011 Dec 15;311(1-2):50-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2011
Author
Inger Boström
Anne-Marie Landtblom
Klaus Lauer
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Clincal and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, Linköping, University, Linköping, Sweden. inger.bostrom@kristinehamn.se
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2011 Dec 15;311(1-2):50-7
Date
Dec-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The county of Värmland, Sweden, has shown a high frequency of multiple sclerosis in several investigations. It has been presented in three studies; a period prevalence study in 1925-1934, a mortality study during 1952-1992 and a prevalence investigation in 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of industry in this high-risk area for multiple sclerosis. The three investigations were correlated with industry in 1913 and in the 1950s, all analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test. Select industries from wood-pulp, paper and iron/mechanical sectors were tested also in whole Sweden. The Spearman rank correlation was used for these data and forestry data in Värmland. In Värmland, industrial data from 1913 revealed that large sawmills were associated with the period prevalence in 1925-1934 and there was a possible correlation with the prevalence for 2002. Wood-pulp factories showed a possible association with the prevalence 1925-1934 and the mortality 1952-1992. Some industries in the 1950s were correlated with the prevalence 2002. Wood and paper industries in Sweden 1913 showed an association with the MS mortality 1952-1992. In summary, data on MS prevalence in Värmland and mortality both in Värmland and all Sweden from the past 100 years suggest an association with wood-related industries in 1913 and in the 1950s, whereas no consistent association was found for other industries.
PubMed ID
21982618 View in PubMed
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An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93021
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Beketov Mikhail A
Liess Matthias
Author Affiliation
UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany. mikhail.beketov@ufz.de
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Food chain
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Invertebrates - drug effects - physiology
Organic Chemicals - toxicity
Rivers
Siberia
Species Specificity
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR(organic) (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR(organic) is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR(organic) as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants.
PubMed ID
18547697 View in PubMed
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Can persistent organic pollutants and plastic-associated chemicals cause cardiovascular disease?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126616
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Jun;271(6):537-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
L. Lind
P M Lind
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. lars.lind@medsci.uu.se
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Jun;271(6):537-53
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Atherosclerosis - chemically induced
Benzhydryl Compounds
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - chemically induced
Diabetes Complications - chemically induced
Diabetes Mellitus - chemically induced
Dioxins - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Epidemiological Monitoring
Evidence-Based Medicine
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Peripheral Arterial Disease - chemically induced
Pesticides - adverse effects
Phenols - adverse effects
Plastics - adverse effects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects
Risk factors
Stroke - chemically induced
Sweden - epidemiology
World Health
Abstract
During the last decade, associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and pesticides, and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and overt CV disease (CVD) have been reported in humans. Recently, associations between plastic-associated chemicals (PACs), such as bisphenol A and phthalates, and CVD have also begun to emerge. Several approaches to evaluating such associations have been used: accidents with a high level of exposure, occupational exposure studies, geographical studies of subjects living near a contaminated area and traditional case-control or cohort studies with measurements of circulating levels of different environmental contaminants in the general population. Exposure to POPs has consistently been associated with diabetes using all the approaches described above, including prospective studies. The evidence regarding associations between exposure to POPs and other CV risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity and lipids, is less strong and is mainly based on cross-sectional data. Associations between overt CVD and POPs have been reported using all the above approaches, but prospective data from population-based studies are still lacking to provide firm evidence of an important and independent role of POP exposure in the pathogenesis of CVD. Nevertheless, taken together, current evidence suggests that further longitudinal and experimental studies should be conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to both POPs and PACs, such as bisphenol A and phthalates.
PubMed ID
22372998 View in PubMed
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[CHEMICAL-ANALYTICAL ASPECTS OF THE COMPLEX IMPACT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE POPULATION'S HEALTH].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270371
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):5-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
A G Malysheva
Yu A Rakhmanin
E G Rastyannikov
N Yu Kozlova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):5-10
Date
2015
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollution - analysis - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Hazardous Substances - analysis - classification
Humans
Hygiene - standards
Public Health - methods
Risk assessment
Russia
Abstract
In the study of the complex action of environmental factors the important step is the consideration of the multi-component composition of chemical substances which affect the human in the real conditions of the environmental pollution. In the study of complex action of environmental factors it is expedient to use the algorithm of chemical analytical studies, envisaging the implementation of the identity analysis with the quantitative assessment ofpossibly the fullest array of pollutants and the subsequent selection of leading indices on the base of the evaluation of the identified multi-component composition ofthe pollution according to the degree of their hygienic significance in view of the proposed set of criteria.
PubMed ID
26856132 View in PubMed
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Child health and environmental pollution in the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33248
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 May;88(429):49-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
R. Zetterström
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska Hospital Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 May;88(429):49-54
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Welfare
Child, Preschool
Ecology
Embryonic and Fetal Development - physiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Kazakhstan
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Risk assessment
Abstract
Environmental pollutants, which may occur in breast milk and in various food products and drinking water, and which are also transferred to the foetus, constitute a severe threat to the health of infants and children. Among such compounds, various organochlorines, such as pesticides for the control of parasites (DDTs, HCHs), and products of industry and agriculture, such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCBs), are much discussed, in addition to organic mercury and heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. The consequences of acute exposure to PCB have been documented in Japan following the ingestion of rice oil contaminated by PCBs. In Sweden birthweight has been found to be reduced and the perinatal mortality rate higher than expected in regions with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. In addition, from studies around Lake Michigan, it has been shown that children who have been exposed to PCBs in utero have retarded cognitive development. In the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia people have been subjected to long-term exposure to various pesticides, which have been distributed over the cotton fields in huge quantities. Organochlorines are resistant to breakdown in nature, thus they enter the food chain, eventually entering the human diet, and they may also be inhaled from dust. Such compounds accumulate in the foetus by placental transport and continue to do so postnatally if the infants are breastfed, as they may be present in high concentrations in human milk. The health of children living in the Aral Sea region is reported to be poor, with high morbidity and mortality and a high rate of chronic diseases and retarded mental and physical development. However, in addition to being subjected to environmental pollution, these children also suffer from health hazards related to poverty. Through epidemiological studies it may be possible to obtain information about to what extent exposure to environmental pollution from organochlorines contributes to the poor health of people living in the Aral Sea region.
PubMed ID
10419232 View in PubMed
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29 records – page 1 of 3.