The article presents data dynamics of adaptive immune responses of people for a long time living in adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution of the environment by industrial toxic waste. It is shown that in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors, changes in the immune system are in the phase fluctuations of immunological parameters that are accompanied by changes in the structure of immunodependent pathology. Most sensitive to prolonged exposure to toxic compounds are the cellular mechanisms of immune protection. Violations of the structural and quantitative and functional parameters of the link of the immune system are leading to the formation of immunopathological processes.
The county of Värmland, Sweden, has shown a high frequency of multiple sclerosis in several investigations. It has been presented in three studies; a period prevalence study in 1925-1934, a mortality study during 1952-1992 and a prevalence investigation in 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of industry in this high-risk area for multiple sclerosis. The three investigations were correlated with industry in 1913 and in the 1950s, all analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test. Select industries from wood-pulp, paper and iron/mechanical sectors were tested also in whole Sweden. The Spearman rank correlation was used for these data and forestry data in Värmland. In Värmland, industrial data from 1913 revealed that large sawmills were associated with the period prevalence in 1925-1934 and there was a possible correlation with the prevalence for 2002. Wood-pulp factories showed a possible association with the prevalence 1925-1934 and the mortality 1952-1992. Some industries in the 1950s were correlated with the prevalence 2002. Wood and paper industries in Sweden 1913 showed an association with the MS mortality 1952-1992. In summary, data on MS prevalence in Värmland and mortality both in Värmland and all Sweden from the past 100 years suggest an association with wood-related industries in 1913 and in the 1950s, whereas no consistent association was found for other industries.
Improving the chemoanalytical quality control of the urban environment requires transition from the assessment considering only certain things determined by target analyses to the comprehensive assessment based on monitoring with the identification of the maximally complete spectra of substances contained in the environmental objects and coming from the sources of pollution, by using the appropriate algorithm; identification, quantifying a spectrum of pollutants as completely as possible; selection of the leading indices, by evaluating the detected composition of pollutions from the degree of their hygienic significance, by taking into account a set of criteria (detection rate, concentrations, group affiliation, specificity for a nearby source of pollution in the check of drinking water, a capacity for transformation, possible formation of more toxic transformation products); and monitoring through target tests by the chosen leading indices.
Descriptive and analytical study of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been first-ever carried out in population of Volgograd city, South region of Russian Federation. At the period of the study (1996-2000) the population was estimated as 814 100 adult persons. An average age-adjusted level of MS prevalence was 31.9 per 100,000, MS incidence--9.8, mortality 1,8. Thus, the city is at a moderate risk for MS, however the incidence of the disease appeared to be rather high that indicates a further increase of MS patients number in this population. The highest level of MS prevalence was registered in two districts with poor ecological characteristics and numerous industries: Krasnoarmeysky (52.4 per 100,000 persons) and Krasnooktiabrsky (46.4). An analytical case-control study included data collected from 178 pairs (73.6% female) of MS patients and controls matched for age, sex and ethnic origin. Significant differences between patients and controls were detected as follows: patients more often had blue eyes as compared to dark ones; in the patient group mother's age at birth was above 30 years; patients more often lived near chemical and/or oil factories at age before 15 years; they more often reported a presence of stress factors in the family and chronic tonsillitis. Association with other factors, including infections, nutrition, acute and chronic diseases, poisoning, traumas, family history of different diseases, contact with animals etc, has not been found. A possible association between environmental factors and features of MS course were analyzed. Living near chemical factories at age before 15 was associated with more active MS course, i.e. high frequency of progressive course, short period from MS onset to confirmed EDSS=3, short duration of first remission. The same, though less significant, influence may exert the presence of herpes infection and chronic tonsillitis at age under 15.
Due to the massive pollution of the Techa-Iset river system with the radioactive sewage of the Mayak industrial association in the 1950s, the factors responsible for the incidence of diseases were studied in 5 districts of the Kurgan Region along the territory of which rivers flow. There is a direct relationship of children's morbidity to ambient air pollution. The determinants of adult morbidity are air pollution and water quality. There is an inverse correlation of morbidity with the provision with therapists and with the economic indices of districts. The prevalence of some types of diseases, such as those of the endocrine and respiratory systems, ulcer disease correlates with the ranking position of a district in the level of pollution in the Techa and Iset Rivers.
To report the effects of bleach use at home on the frequency of infections in 9102 school-age children participating in the HITEA project.
Parents of pupils aged 6-12 years from schools in Barcelona province (Spain), Utrecht province (the Netherlands) and Eastern and Central Finland were administered a questionnaire including questions on the frequency of infections (influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis and pneumonia) in the past 12 months and bleach use at home. We developed multivariable mixed-effects multilogistic regression models to obtain relative risk ratios (RRR) and their 95% CI per country, and combined the RRR using random-effects meta-analyses.
Bleach use was common in Spain (72%, n=1945) and uncommon in Finland (7%, n=279). Overall, the prevalence of infections (recurrent or once) was higher among children of bleach users. Significant combined associations were shown for influenza only once (RRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), recurrent tonsillitis (RRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.71) and any infection (RRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38).
Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. The high frequency of use of disinfecting irritant cleaning products may be of public health concern, also when exposure occurs during childhood.