The article contains data on monitoring the atmospheric air pollution in Moscow. Thus, the below figures are presented: beta ranges from 2.6 E-0.5 to 5.7 E-0.04 Bk/m3, airborne pollutants amount to 3-80 mkg/m3, sulfates--0.002-1.58 mkg(S)/m3, nitrates--0.05-0.75 mkg(N2)/m3 ammonium ions--0.12-1.20 mkg (N2)/m3, sulfuric dioxides--0.11-1.20 mkg (S)/m3. nitric dioxides--0.05-0.5 mlg (N2)/m3 and nitric acid--0.01-0.08 mkg (N2)/m3. The concentration of airborne pollutants exceeds the regional European level (22 mkg/m3) and that of Russia's European part (12 ... 28 mkg/m3) approximately by 1.5 times. It is noteworthy that it reaches 50 ... 70 mkg/m3 in large industrial centers of Europe. The share of sulfuric and nitric acids in the total concentration of airborne pollutants is (by weight) 13%. 0.8 g of sulfur per m2/year and 0.34 g of nitrogen per m2/year fall in the area of Sport-and-Recreation Complex No. 3 with precipitations; the average total beta-activity of atmospheric precipitations amounts to 1.2 Bk/m2 per day. An analysis of relationships between the air dustiness, the ashes samples' weight (of the air) and cuvette (precipitations) is indicative of their direct and tense correlation: the correlation coefficient between dust and ashes samples is 0.716, and between dust and ashes samples of cuvettes--0.559. At the same time, an extremely weak correlation should be pointed out between air dustiness and the total beta-activity of samples--the correlation coefficient is 0.184 (during a warm year season), as well as between dustiness and the beta-activity of cuvettes--0.346.
A questionnaire survey was made to study the opinion of residents in the area of the Yamashev-Dekabristy main road, the joint stock company Tasma-Holding, the commercial joint stock Orgsintez on their health status and on the source of ambient air pollution and the opinion of those living in Gorki-I, an ecologically pure area. The respondents were asked to answer the questions on the unfavourable impact of environmental factors on human health (respondents' painful sensations). The questions also concerned such factors as noise, odour, dust in relation to the place of residence near the main road or an industrial enterprise. The results of the questionnaire survey suggest that environmental pollution exerts an adverse effect on human health particularly in the areas where industrial enterprises and large main roads are located. The findings serve as the basis for introduction of ecological tension-reducing measures.
The role of some ingredients that contaminate the ambient air in the occurrence and development of allergic diseases was studied. The closest relationships were found between the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and the prevalence of eczema (rxy +/- m = 0.48 +/- 0.15). There was a direct correlation between the concentrations of each ingredient and the incidence of neurodermitis among children. The correlation between the summarized concentrations of ingredients and the incidence of bronchial asthma among children was rxy +/- m = 0.71 +/- 0.19. The findings serves as the basis for elaborating measures to reduce ecological tension and the incidence of allergic diseases in children.
The paper presents the results of a complex biochemical study of the health status of children from Moscow, the Moscow Region, Yaroslavl, Cherepovets, the Voronezh Region, etc. The presented results allowed the authors to detect renal protective dysfunction in children in relation to environmental pollution. The greatest deviations of the studied parameters were observed in Moscow (Garden Ring, Central Administration Okrug (CAO)) and in the industrial town of Cherepovets (the area in vicinity of the Severostal enterprise). The results of a complex biomedical examination of 486 children in the Moscow CAO were first analyzed. The spread of changes was established in the studied parameters over a time, which indicates the presence of immunodeficiency, immunopathology, renal detoxifying dysfunction, and nasal and oral mucosal changes.
The authors discuss the basic concepts of a system developed to evaluate health hazards associated with short-term exposure of different population groups to inhaled chemicals, including exposure that takes place in emergency situations. The article contains examples of acute exposition profiles for the most wide-spread air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide, developed using quantitative values of short-term exposure risk criteria.