The paper presents the results of a complex biochemical study of the health status of children from Moscow, the Moscow Region, Yaroslavl, Cherepovets, the Voronezh Region, etc. The presented results allowed the authors to detect renal protective dysfunction in children in relation to environmental pollution. The greatest deviations of the studied parameters were observed in Moscow (Garden Ring, Central Administration Okrug (CAO)) and in the industrial town of Cherepovets (the area in vicinity of the Severostal enterprise). The results of a complex biomedical examination of 486 children in the Moscow CAO were first analyzed. The spread of changes was established in the studied parameters over a time, which indicates the presence of immunodeficiency, immunopathology, renal detoxifying dysfunction, and nasal and oral mucosal changes.