The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.
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The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water.
North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.
There was executed the ecologic-hygienic assessment of the distribution of respiratory diseases prevalence in bioclimatic zones of the Primorsky Krai. The aim of the study was a systematic assessment of the impact of ecological-hygienic factors of environment on the distribution of respiratory diseases in adolescents and children of the Primorsky region. As an information database there were used indices of the prevalence of diseases of the respiratory system of the ICD-10 class of the official statistical report forms for the period of2000-2013 and the parameters of the environment offactor modules (6 - socio-sanitary, 5 - environmental). The numerical values of modules offactors were determined according to a specially developed scoring scale. The study of the prevalence was carried out with the use of a classical method of data analysis - descriptive statistics, Chi-square criteria. By means of the method of regression analysis from the SPSS package software there was established the relationship of environmental factors and the level of the prevalence of diseases, and were calculated values of the factor loadings influencing on the morbidity rate of children and adolescents. The study revealed that in the structure of morbidity diseases of the respiratory system account of 39% in adolescents, 61% - in children. Constructed predictive models describe the trend of the increasing in the prevalence in adolescents and children. Over the past 15 years, the level of respiratory diseases morbidity rate increased by 46.1%. It is established that the prevalence of respiratory diseases in children and adolescents from various districts of the Primorsky territory depends on the features of the bioclimatic zones and the degree of sanitary-hygienic situation, as well as combinations of parameters that form these zones; the highest cumulative level of the prevalence is observed in the bioclimatic zone of the coast, that is caused by the various degree of the impact of biotropic factors of environment; The prevalence of diseases of respiratory system is mainly affected by bioclimatic factors: residence in an area of high humidity, temperature swings, movements of air masses in combination with air pollution.
The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
This article first examines three areas of occupational health: the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the work on chemicals of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention and Recommendation on Occupational Health Services. All three areas are criticized, using the notion of a "scientific strategy" which is the use of bodies of scientific knowledge and techniques in approaching occupational health. In the first two areas, it is contended that a misguided scientific strategy has been adopted which is a comment on the role of scientists in policy-making. In the third case, it is argued that the Convention and Recommendation emphasize the remedial aspects of occupational health to the detriment of the preventive side, a reflection of the undue influence of industrial medicine on occupational health. A proper approach to occupational health would make very different demands on science and would employ engineering techniques at the expense of the medical disciplines. As it is, occupational health is out of focus.
International scientific organizations have been subject to repeated efforts by Canadian government officials and representatives of the asbestos industry to issue reports that would be favorable to the industry on questions of asbestos use and public health implications. In recent years these efforts have been met with international opposition from scientists, governments, unions, and environmental groups, and a pattern of improprieties, often involving the same individuals and tactics, has emerged. This has been a serious threat to scientific objectivity at the most respected international scientific bodies in the world. The manipulation of these international organizations takes on unprecedented significance in this age of the World Trade Organization.
To solve the problem of medical examinations system improvement according to Russian Federation Health Ministry Order No. 90, the Department for Occupational Hygiene Supervision specified several directions: -cooperation with medical commissions of health care facilities and with occupational safety divisions at industrial enterprises to determine contingents and volume of further research; - organization of conferences in municipal health care department with representatives of health care facilities and employers; - cooperation with specialists in public hygiene and occupational center for complex inspection of health care facilities; - preparation of information for and participation for and participation in interdepartmental commission conference based on clinical expert commission in occupational pathology center and in municipal department on work safety; - cooperation with occupational pathology center in activities of license committee.