OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength training is one of the most common therapy methods in physical therapy programs, and the usual goal of this treatment is to improve muscle strength. Little attention has been paid, however, to the effects of strength training on the other components of motor performance. This study examined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on the motor performance of the hand, including reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination in normal healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Before-after trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Sixteen healthy women volunteers aged 25 to 45 years participated. INTERVENTION: Subjects accomplished a 10-week muscle strength training program of the upper extremities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reaction time, speed of movement, tapping speed, and coordination were measured three times on consecutive days, and muscle strength and electromyographic values of the right upper extremity were recorded once before the training period. After the training period, the same measurements were made as before the training. RESULTS: The 10-week strength training decreased choice reaction time by 6% (p
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate activity limitations 3 years after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to grip force and sex. METHODS: A total of 217 patients, 153 women and 64 men, with recent-onset RA were included. Activity limitations were reported using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Evaluation of Daily Activities Questionnaire (EDAQ). The relationships between activity limitations versus grip force (measured by the Grippit), walking speed, functional impairment, grip ability, pain, plasma C-reactive protein, the 28-joint disease activity score and its components, the physician's global assessment of disease activity, and sex were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS). RESULTS: Women had significantly lower grip force and more activity limitations (HAQ and EDAQ) than men. The PLS analyses demonstrated that grip force was the strongest regressor of activity limitation, closely followed by walking speed. However, within subgroups based on grip force (group 1 = grip force 328 N) and including sexes, women and men had corresponding degrees of activity limitation as reported by the HAQ and EDAQ. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the more pronounced activity limitations seen in women with RA, as compared with men, may be explained by lower grip force rather than sex.
The influence of backrest support and handgrip contractions on acute metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses were evaluated in 13 healthy men during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV).
Following assessment of aerobic fitness during arm cranking, subjects were exposed to frequencies 3, 4.5, and 6 Hz with 0.9 g(r.m.s) acceleration magnitude on a vibrating base in randomized order, on separate days. Each exposure included 6 min baseline without WBV, 8 min of WBV exposure either 'with' or 'without' backrest, 4 min recovery, followed by 8 min of WBV with opposite backrest condition, and 4 min recovery. During the final minute of WBV, subjects performed right hand maximal rhythmic handgrip contractions for one minute. During baseline and before completion of WBV session 'with' and 'without' backrest, cardiac output was estimated indirectly by carbon dioxide rebreathing.
At 3 and 4.5, and 3 and 6 Hz, absolute and relative oxygen uptake demonstrated significantly greater responses during sitting 'without' backrest than 'with' backrest (P
Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.
The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.
The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.
Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.
cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P
Cites: Curr Sports Med Rep. 2014 Jul-Aug;13(4):253-925014391
To evaluate age and secular changes in strength of rural Zapotec adults in Oaxaca between 1978 and 2000.
Grip strength, height and weight were measured in 1978 (n = 247, 19-82 years) and 2000 (n = 407, 19-89 years); 35 males and 52 females were measured in both years. MANCOVA was used for comparisons by age and year.
Grip strength and strength/height decline with age; the slope is greater after 40-49 years. Both are significantly greater in 2000 compared to 1978 only in males 19-29 and 30-39 years and in females 30-39 years. Strength and strength/height decline at a slightly faster rate in females than males during young adulthood, but at similar rates in both sexes during middle age. Strength/mass is greater in 1978 than 2000, but differences are not significant in most age groups. Strength/mass declines linearly with age and rates do not differ between young and older adults of both sexes. Left grip strength/left mid-arm muscle circumference shows a pattern across age similar to strength/mass in both sexes.
Grip strength and strength per unit size declined with age. Strength and strength/height tended to increase between 1978 and 2000, while the opposite occurred for strength/weight. Results likely reflected in changes in habitual physical activity patterns associated with the transition from subsistence agriculture to less economic dependence upon agriculture.
This paper sought to provide normative values for grip strength among older adults across different age groups in northwest Russia and to investigate their predictive value for adverse events.
A population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals 65+. Grip strength was measured using the standard protocol applied in the Groningen Elderly Tests. The cut-off thresholds for grip strength were defined separately for men and women of different ages using a weighted polynomial regression. A Cox regression analysis, the c-statistic, a risk reclassification analysis, and bootstrapping techniques were used to analyze the data. The outcomes were the 5-year mortality rate, the loss of autonomy and mental decline.
We determined the age-related reference intervals of grip strength for older adults. The 5(th) and 10(th) percentiles of grip strength were associated with a higher risk for malnutrition, low autonomy, physical and mental functioning and 5-year mortality. The 5(th) percentile of grip strength was associated with a decline in autonomy.
This study presents age- and sex-specific reference values for grip strength in the 65+ Russian population derived from a prospective cohort study. The norms can be used in clinical practice to identify patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes.
Cites: J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2009 Feb;34(1):76-8419129352
PURPOSE: The purpose is to study the age trajectory of hand-grip strength after the age of 45 years. METHODS: In this study, we use data from three large nationwide population-based surveys of Danes aged 45 to 102 years with a total of 8342 participants with grip-strength measurements and up to 4 years of follow-up. Grip strength was measured by using a portable hand dynamometer. RESULTS: Grip strength declines throughout life for both males and females, but among the oldest women, the longitudinal curve reaches a horizontal plateau. The course of the decline is estimated by using full information in the longitudinal data and is found to be almost linear in the age span of 50 to 85 years. In this age span, mean annual grip-strength loss is estimated to be 0.59 (0.02) (SE) kg for men and 0.31 (0.01) kg for women. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previously reported grip-strength decline with increasing age. Estimates were obtained by using full-information methods from large population-representative studies. Equations of expected grip strength, as well as tables with sex-, age-, and height-stratified reference data, provide an opportunity to include grip-strength measurement in clinical care in similar populations.
Several consensus groups have previously published operational criteria for sarcopenia, incorporating lean mass with strength and/or physical performance. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the prevalence, agreement, and discrepancies between the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) criteria with other operational definitions for sarcopenia.
The FNIH Sarcopenia Project used data from nine studies including: Age, Gene and Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study; Boston Puerto Rican Health Study; a series of six clinical trials from the University of Connecticut; Framingham Heart Study; Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study; Invecchiare in Chianti; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study; Rancho Bernardo Study; and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Participants included in these analyses were aged 65 and older and had measures of body mass index, appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and gait speed.
The prevalence of sarcopenia and agreement proportions was higher in women than men. The lowest prevalence was observed with the FNIH criteria (1.3% men and 2.3% women) compared with the International Working Group and the European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons (5.1% and 5.3% in men and 11.8% and 13.3% in women, respectively). The positive percent agreements between the FNIH criteria and other criteria were low, ranging from 7% to 32% in men and 5% to 19% in women. However, the negative percent agreement were high (all >95%).
The FNIH criteria result in a more conservative operational definition of sarcopenia, and the prevalence was lower compared with other proposed criteria. Agreement for diagnosing sarcopenia was low, but agreement for ruling out sarcopenia was very high. Consensus on the operational criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia is much needed to characterize populations for study and to identify adults for treatment.
Cites: J Nutr Health Aging. 2013 Jan;17(1):76-8023299384
To explore the covariate-adjusted associations between body composition (percent body fat and lean body mass) and prognostic factors for mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) (nutritional status, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], quality of life, exercise capacity, and C-reactive protein).
Between June 2008 and July 2009, we directly measured body composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 140 patients with systolic and/or diastolic heart failure. We compared body composition and CHF prognostic factors across body fat reference ranges and body mass index (BMI) categories. Multiple linear regression models were created to examine the independent associations between body composition and CHF prognostic factors; we contrasted these with models that used BMI.
Use of BMI misclassified body fat status in 51 patients (41%). Body mass index was correlated with both lean body mass (r=0.72) and percent body fat (r=0.67). Lean body mass significantly increased with increasing BMI but not with percent body fat. Body mass index was significantly associated with lower NT-proBNP and lower exercise capacity. In contrast, higher percent body fat was associated with a higher serum prealbumin level, lower exercise capacity, and increased C-reactive protein level; lean body mass was inversely associated with NT-proBNP and positively associated with hand-grip strength.
When BMI is divided into fat and lean mass components, a higher lean body mass and/or lower fat mass is independently associated with factors that are prognostically advantageous in CHF. Body mass index may not be a good indicator of adiposity and may in fact be a better surrogate for lean body mass in this population.
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