Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire is a widely used patient-reported outcome measure in hand surgery. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire into Finnish for Finnish patients with hand problems following international standards and guidelines.
The original English Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated into Finnish. Altogether, 115 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, and reference outcomes: Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder, EQ-5D 3L and pain intensity on a visual analog scale. Grip and key pinch forces were measured. After 1-2?weeks, 63 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire the second time. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was analyzed for internal consistency, repeatability, correlations with the reference outcomes, and factor analysis.
Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales, showing high internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good to excellent test-retest reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.91 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales. In factor analysis, the structure with six subscales was not confirmed. All the subscales correlated with Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder score, and five subscales correlated with EQ-5D index.
The Finnish version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire showed similar properties compared to the original English version and thus can be used as patient-reported outcome measure for Finnish patients with hand problems.
There is a risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBV) to health-care workers when performing hand surgery on intravenous drug abusers and other patients known to have BBV. This review summarises methods and procedures that may be employed to help reduce this risk to a minimum. High-risk patients should be identified early and a non-invasive procedure considered. Only experienced staff should scrub and appropriate clothing should be worn. Sharp instrument use should be kept to a minimum and only instrument retraction and suturing should be employed. When possible, wounds should be closed with staples, glue or absorbable sutures. Appropriate steps must be taken to reduce the risk of injuries from sharp bone ends, K-wires and splash exposure during irrigation.
In a retrospective study of primary lymphedema, we found that the age of onset ranged from 0 to 16 years; sex did not appear to be a factor; and treatment was preventive rather than surgical. Thirteen patients were available for follow-up studies, the time interval being at least 6 years. The degree of swelling at the time of the follow-up examination was defined as mild, moderate, or severe. In patients with mild and moderate swelling the edema was not progressive and surgical treatment was not indicated. Severe swelling appeared to be associated with congenital lymphedema and with repeated infection. Pressure-support treatment can be effective in the reduction of swelling or in the prevention of further swelling, if applied constantly over a long period of time. The authors discuss the histological similarity between lymphedema and lymphagioma, and present an anatomical classification for the two entities.
Cold sensitivity is common following nerve injuries in the upper extremity, but is less well studied in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We investigated cold sensitivity in CTS and its effects on surgical outcome. A search of the Swedish National Registry for Hand Surgery (HAKIR) for open carpal tunnel releases (OCTR) from 2010-2016 identified 10,746 cases. Symptom severity questionnaires (HQ-8; HAKIR questionnaire 8, eight Likert-scale items scored 0-100, one item on cold sensitivity) and QuickDASH scores before and after surgery were collected. Patient mean age was 56?±?SD 16 years, and 7,150/10,746 (67%) were women. Patients with severe cold sensitivity (defined as cold intolerance symptom severity score?>?70; n?=?951), scored significantly higher on QuickDASH at all time points compared to those with mild cold sensitivity (cold intolerance symptom severity scores?=?30, n?=?1,532); preoperatively 64 [50-75] vs. 40 [25-55], at three months 32 [14-52] vs. 18 [9-32] and at 12 months 25 [7-50] vs. 9 [2-23]; all p?