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The international biological program/human adaptability studies among the Skolt Sami in Finland (1966-1970).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124623
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Henrik Forsius
Aldur W Eriksson
Johan Fellman
Author Affiliation
Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Helsinki, Finland. henrik.forsius@folkhalsan.fi
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1-5
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Eye Color - physiology
Female
Finland
Fundus Oculi
Hair Color - physiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Iris
Male
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Skin Pigmentation - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The population is increasingly lighter pigmented moving in a northward direction in Europe until reaching the Arctic Circle, where the Samis (Lapps) are clearly more pigmented.
In 1966-1970, we investigated a total of 689 subjects in the villages of Sevettijärvi and Nellim, including persons with mixed Sami and Finnish heritage; of these, 487 (242 males, 245 females) had both parents classified as Skolt Sami. For estimation of the colour of the iris and hair, international scales were used. For translucency of the iris, pigmentation of the fundus was estimated in 3 different shades. The length and type of eyelashes were classified into 3 categories. To our knowledge, a simultaneous study of the pigmentation of eyebrows, eyelashes and eye fundus at different ages has not previously been published.
The age differences of iris colour were highly significant. Iris colour in children varied markedly, and they generally had lighter colours than later in life. Age and sex effects on the translucency of irises were found. Male irises were more translucent. Fundus pigmentation was scanty in the youngest age groups, with full pigmentation being reached at 20 years. Among young individuals hair colour darkens with increasing age. Eyebrow colour was slightly lighter for both sexes in the youngest age groups that in older cohorts. Women had longer eyelashes than males.
The main factor of the lighter skin is a higher ability to synthesize vitamin D, providing superior protection against rickets. The Skolt Samis are more pigmented than other Nordic people. In earlier times they had problems with rickets but our studies did not show any essential symptoms of rickets today. Visual acuity among Skolt Samis was good. They had lower prevalence of myopia compared to Finns. The stronger pigmentation of Skolt Samis is probably due to their origin from darker Eastern populations. Since our investigations were made, the Skolt Samis have been to a great part mixed with neighbouring populations and scattered throughout Finland. Even their old language is nowadays used mainly for traditional purposes. Therefore similar studies could not be performed anymore.
Notes
Cites: Twin Res. 2004 Apr;7(2):197-21015169604
Cites: Nord Med. 1968 Mar 28;79(13):436-95659866
Cites: Nord Med. 1970 Dec 3;84(49):1559-615488567
Cites: Anthropol Anz. 1972 Jun;33(3):219-325082982
Cites: Isr J Med Sci. 1973 Sep-Oct;9(9):1156-704359636
Cites: Am J Phys Anthropol. 1975 Nov;43(3):417-241211436
Cites: Hum Genet. 2008 Mar;123(2):177-8718172690
Cites: Genome Res. 1995 Aug;5(1):42-528717054
Cites: Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1962 Jan;131:1-9714472382
Cites: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Apr;44(2):89-9315936856
Cites: Br J Dermatol. 2006 Dec;155(6):1170-617107385
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Feb;80(2):241-5217236130
Cites: Anthropol Anz. 1976 Mar;35(2-3):173-76984741
PubMed ID
22564462 View in PubMed
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Nicotine and cotinine accumulation in pigmented and unpigmented rat hair.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69082
Source
Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Jan;23(1):143-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1995
Author
B. Gerstenberg
G. Schepers
P. Voncken
H. Völkel
Author Affiliation
INBIFO Institut für Biologische Forschung, Köln, Germany.
Source
Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Jan;23(1):143-8
Date
Jan-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aroclors - pharmacology
Cotinine - pharmacokinetics - urine
Enzyme Induction - drug effects
Hair - chemistry - metabolism
Hair Color - physiology
Male
Nicotine - pharmacokinetics - urine
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Abstract
This study was performed to assess the contribution of systemic and external uptake to nicotine accumulation in hair. The systemic nicotine uptake in hair was determined in pigmented rats (Brown Norway) and albino rats (Sprague-Dawley) after subcutaneous administration of 3 doses of nicotine with osmotic minipumps [5, 10, and 20 mg/(kg x day) for 3 weeks], the highest dose also following metabolic enzyme induction. The external nicotine uptake was determined in cut hair of both strains after exposure to room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke, a surrogate for environmental tobacco smoke (nicotine concentration: 5 micrograms/liter for 1, 2, and 3 weeks). Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine were determined using capillary GC after complete alkaline digestion of the hair sample and solvent extraction. Systemic uptake: Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were dose-dependent and correlated with plasma concentrations. The nicotine concentration was approximately 20 times higher in pigmented than in unpigmented hair. The cotinine concentration was approximately 10 times lower than the nicotine concentration in pigmented hair. After enzyme induction before administration, nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly reduced in parallel to the reduced plasma concentrations, showing the influence of metabolism. External uptake: Nicotine was found in the hair of both strains, the concentration in pigmented hair being a factor of 1.5 higher than in unpigmented hair. Thus, hair pigmentation had a major influence on systemic uptake in hair and a minor influence on external uptake in hair.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7720518 View in PubMed
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