The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
The purpose of this study was analysis of forensic medical aspects of macro- and trace element composition of hairs of the head in the residents of Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia and changes in this characteristic during adaptation to conditions of Central Russia. One of our tasks was to define expert criteria for differentiation between the hairs belonging to residents of these countries and Russia. A total of 136 hairs were examined by spectral approximated quantitative analysis using DFS-13 spectrographer. The detected regularity consisted in the following: adaptation of residents of Latin America to conditions of Central Russia was associated with disappearance of some elements and appearance of other ones characteristic of residents of Central Russia (Byelorussians, Russians, Ukrainians).
Marginal zinc deficiency (MZD), the subclinical stage of zinc deficiency, is common in industrialized societies. Serum zinc, the most common biomarker of zinc status, lacks sensitivity and specificity to diagnose this deficiency. Hair zinc, however, is sensitive and specific enough to detect MZD in children. Differences in hair zinc associated with age and sex have been reported. These differences have not been investigated thoroughly; therefore, interpretation of the results of hair analyses is difficult. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the hair zinc status of a group of Vancouver preschoolers (24-71 months) and assess the age- and sex-based differences in their hair zinc. Hair samples were obtained (n = 719) and analyzed for zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results indicated a mean hair zinc of 115 +/- 43 microg/g with 17% below the low hair zinc cutoff (70 microg/g). Boys and girls had comparable mean hair zinc, while girls had a significantly higher occurrence of low hair zinc than boys (21% vs. 12%). Children or =4. Our study provides important reference values for the hair zinc of healthy North American preschoolers.
On the base of macro- and microelements' concentration in hair of Magadan's inhabitants there were analyzed the changes of aged people's element status. It has been shown that with age, differently directed reconstruction happened, leading to accumulation of one elements and decrease of concentration of others in inhabitants' hair. Elements, undergoing natural age reconstruction, may be considered as indicators and initiators of aging. We have allocated two groups of elements, in dependence on changes' direction. The first group is the main one; Na, K, Ca, Se, As, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn belong to this group; their level in hair is increasing with age. Taking into account the excretory function of hair, accumulation of named elements is considered as aged removing of these elements out of organism. The exception is the toxic As: its superfluous concentrations in hair reflect the accumulation As in the internal environment of organism. Elements (Cr, Si), concentration of which in hair is decreasing with age, belong to the second group. On the base of literary data, the decreasing of named elements in hair must be interpreted as their programmed decreasing in the organism of aged people. Hence, in aged people there is seen the generalized decreasing of the most studied essential macro- and microelements in the organism. The exception is As, concentration of which is increasing in aged people. The age disorder of element homeostasis may serve as a predictor of "normal" diseases and may be one of pathophysiological mechanisms of aging.
Age-related differences in the trace element content of hair have been reported. However, some discrepancies in the data exist.
The primary objective of this study was to estimate the change in hair trace elements content in relation to age.
Six hundred and eighteen women and 438 men aged from 10-59 years took part in the current cross-sectional study.
Hair Cr, Mn, Ni, Si, Al, As, Be, Cd and Pb tended to decrease with age in the female sample, whereas hair Cu, Fe, I, Se, Li and Sn were characterised by an age-associated increase. Hair levels of Cr, Cu, I, Mn, Ni, Si and Al in men decreased with age, whereas hair Co, Fe, Se, Cd, Li and Pb content tended to increase. Hair mercury increased in association with age in men and in women, whereas hair vanadium was characterised by a significant decrease in both sexes. The difference in hair trace element content between men and women decreased with age. These data suggest that age-related differences in trace element status may have a direct implication in the ageing process.
To quantify rapid alternating movements (RAMs) we used a simple prototype developed in our laboratory that requires the subject to rotate two hand-held foam spheres connected to optical encoders via flexible rods. Ninety-six participants, including 30 control subjects, 36 Cree subjects exposed to methylmercury, 21 subjects with Parkinson's disease, 6 subjects with cerebellar deficits, and 3 subjects with essential tremor, were involved in the study (though data for 5 were later removed). Twelve characteristics were developed and calculated from the raw data. Conditions examined included two hands at natural cadence (NC2), right and left hands separately at fast cadence (FCl), and both hands at fast cadence (FC2). Two ratios (FC2/NC2) and (FC2/FC1) combining these conditions were also examined. Test-retest reliability was >0.80 for most characteristics but was
The Aamjiwnaang First Nations community is located in Canada's 'Chemical Valley' situated in southwest Ontario near Sarnia. Mercury pollution in the region has been known since the 1940s but little is known about levels in the environment and area residents. The current study, using ecological and human exposure assessment methods, was conducted at the community's request to help fill these gaps. First, Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory and the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory were queried to investigate mercury releases from area facilities. In 2010, 700 pounds of mercury were emitted into the air, 25 pounds were released into water bodies, and 93 thousand pounds were disposed of on-site via underground injections or into landfills, and together these show continued releases into the region. Second, mercury levels were measured in stream sediment and nearby soil from sites at Aamjiwnaang (n = 4) and off Reserve (n = 19) in Canada and the U.S. during three seasons that spanned 2010-2011. Total mercury in sediment across all sites and sampling seasons ranged from 5.0 to 398.7 µg/kg, and in soils ranged from 1.2 to 696.2 µg/kg. Sediment and soil mercury levels at Aamjiwnaang were higher than the reference community, and Aamjiwnaang's Talfourd Creek site had the highest mercury levels. Third, a biomonitoring study was performed with 43 mother-child pairs. Hair (mean ± SD of all participants: 0.18 ± 0.16 µg/g) and blood (1.6 ± 2.0 µg/L) mercury levels did not differ between participants studied on- and off-Reserve, likely because of limited seafood intake (
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World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), has developed a standardized methodology for human biomonitoring (HBM) surveys in maternities in order to assess prenatal exposure to mercury. To test this standard methodology and adapt it to Russian settings, a cross-sectional HBM survey involving 120 parturient women was conducted in six maternities of the Moscow Region. Levels of total mercury in maternal hair (geometric mean: 0.21 µg/g, 95th percentile: 0.54 µg/g), cord blood (0.89 µg/L and 2.38 µg/L, respectively) and maternal urine (0.27 µg/L and 0.94 µg/L) in this population were similar to those in other European countries with relatively low fish consumption. Consumption of all types of fish at least once per week during the third trimester of pregnancy compared to fish consumption less than once per month was associated with the increase of geometric mean level of total mercury: in hair by 31% (95% confidence interval: 4%, 66%) higher, in cord blood--by 38% (9%, 74%) and in maternal urine--by 36% (2%, 81%). No biomarker values exceeded levels recommended by WHO or national agencies in the USA and Germany. However; at the population level, adverse effects of prenatal exposures to mercury can still be substantial.
Double-focusing sector-field, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 71 elements in scalp hair and fingernail samples from an urban population group living in the north-east of Sweden. Samples (n = 114 for hair and n = 96 for nails) were taken from subjects without known occupational exposure to metals. From these results, concentration ranges were calculated and compared with published intervals. Statistical analysis was used to elucidate differences according to sex, age and smoking habit. It was found that significant correlations exist between different elements in hair and nails, as well as between hair and nail concentrations for several elements. Strong positive correlation for Hg, Cd, Pb, Sb and Bi levels between these media confirms that both can be used for exposure assessment for these elements. Several examples on the use of distribution patterns for the rare-earth elements (REE) and of Pb isotope ratios for assessment of exposure are given.
Following an official recommendation in the Faroe Islands that women should abstain from eating mercury-contaminated pilot whale meat, a survey was carried out to obtain information on dietary habits and hair samples for mercury analysis. A letter was sent to all 1180 women aged 26-30 years who resided within the Faroes, and the women were contacted again 1 year later. A total of 415 women responded to the first letter; the second letter resulted in 145 repeat hair samples and 125 new responses. Questionnaire results showed that Faroese women, on average, consumed whale meat for dinner only once every second month, but the frequency and meal size depended on the availability of whale in the community. The geometric mean hair-mercury concentration at the first survey was higher in districts with available whale than in those without (3.03 vs. 1.88 microg/g; P=0.001). The mercury concentration also depended on the frequency of whale meat dinners and on the consumption of dried whale meat. The 36 women who did not eat whale meat at all had a geometric mean hair-mercury concentration of 1.28 microg/g. At the time of the second survey, the geometric mean had decreased to 1.77 microg/g (P