The results of screening more than 23,000 serum samples from persons belonging to risk groups, as well as those not belonging to such groups, in Moscow, Vilnius and Klaipeda are presented. Screening was carried out with the use of an assay system manufactured by the Scientific and Industrial Amalgamation "Antigen" (USSR). In this screening 3 HIV carriers were detected; of these, 2 were foreign students from two African countries.
A category of patients with tuberculosis concomitant with HIV infection, who were admitted for inpatient care to the infection department of Tuberculosis Clinical Hospital No. 7, Moscow, during 1996-2001, was analyzed. Peculiarities of the mentioned patients' category (205 subjects) were studied at the anti-TB facility. It was established that males (83.4%), aged 21-30 (48.9%), as well as unemployed (71%) prevailed. As much as 14% of them were homeless and 33% had a prison history. Drug-addiction (76%) and hepatitis C and B (77%) were found to be the key concomitant pathologies in them. HIV was primarily diagnosed at the anti-TB facility in 52% of patients, while tuberculosis had set on before HIV in 34.8% of patients. A major part of patients with tuberculosis concomitant with HIV, who were at the anti-TB facility, had early HIV stages. Specific features of the clinical course of tuberculosis were defined for patients with early HIV stages. It was established that tuberculosis concomitant with early HIV stages is deprived of any peculiarities except for the primary signs' stage, if it has the form of an acute infection. An exacerbation of the tuberculosis process, which quite often leads to its generalization and fatal outcome, can happen during the mentioned period due to a pronounced immunodeficiency.
Screening of hemocontact viral infections (HVI) (HIV, hepatitis B and C) was conducted among patients of the emergency thoraco-abdominal surgery unit. During the 8 years of the study the HVI detection had increased on 57.4%. Gender analysis showed greater HVI prevalence among men. Medico-social criteria of HVI risk-groups among patients of the emergency thoraco-abdominal surgery unit were stated.
Studies of sexual risk behaviour in the context of HIV/AIDS often utilize theories of risk which are predicated on the idea of the rational actor making choices, and thus operate with a strong notion of the autonomous individual. The underlying assumption is that a well-informed individual would strive to reduce risk and therefore choose not to engage in risky behaviour in sexual encounters. Drawing on longitudinal fieldwork in Arusha town and the surrounding districts in northern Tanzania, this paper explores how people draw on a complexity of knowledge and experience when they try to reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV. It shows how the embeddedness of social relationships, and the constraints of culture restrict the possible range of options, particularly for women. The paper examines the paired concepts of risk and trust, arguing that trust in a sexual relationship is gendered in particular ways. Gender hierarchies often place women in a subordinate position to men as a result of which women have to make compromises which put their health at risk.
Since the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1982, there have been over 2,300 cases, as of February 1989, in Canada. The epidemiological pattern of the cases in Canada follows that of the United States with the exception of intravenous drug users. In 1983, the federal government created a National Advisory Committee which is active in advising the Minister of National Health and Welfare on issues for the control and management of AIDS in Canada. In 1985, a $39 million program was announced. An enhanced program of AIDS control was established in July of 1987 with the creation of the Federal Center for AIDS (FCA). This has involved a substantial increase in financial and personnel resources. Canada plays a significant role internationally vis-à-vis AIDS; $10 million has been provided to the World Health Organization. The FCA is a WHO Collaborating Centre. In June of 1989, Canada will host the Vth International Conference on AIDS in Montreal.