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[4-year experience of the Lund model for HIV/AIDS prevention. Needle-exchange program as a bridge to continued care of drug addicts]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8257
Source
Lakartidningen. 1991 May 8;88(19):1797, 1799
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-8-1991

Access to syringes in three Russian cities: implications for syringe distribution and coverage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158518
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S25-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Anya Sarang
Tim Rhodes
Lucy Platt
Author Affiliation
Russian Harm Reduction Network, Ilimskaya Street, 4-1-38, 127576 Moscow, Russia. anyasarang@gmail.com
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S25-36
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Data Collection
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Needle-Exchange Programs - economics - utilization
Pharmacies - organization & administration
Preventive Health Services - economics - organization & administration
Risk-Taking
Russia
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Syringes - supply & distribution
Urban Health Services - supply & distribution
Abstract
We report findings from a multi-method study investigating drug injectors' access to needles and syringes in three large Russian cities (Moscow, Volgograd, Barnaul).
We undertook 209 qualitative interviews among drug injectors, and supplemented these with baseline data from a community-recruited survey of 1473 drug injectors.
Almost all (93%; 1277) injectors used pharmacies as their main source of clean injecting equipment, and only 7% (105) reported ever having had contact with city syringe exchange projects. Good access to syringes has coincided with the expansion of private pharmacies. Key factors contributing to pharmacy access included: geographic proximity; low cost; and the restrictive policies of exchange instituted at local syringe exchanges. A fear of police interference surrounded the use of pharmacies and syringe exchanges, and fed a reluctance to carry used needles and syringes, which in turn acted as a disincentive to syringe exchange attendance. The perceived benefits of syringe exchanges over pharmacies included the additional health services on offer and the social support provided, but these benefits were over-shadowed by disadvantages. Multivariable analyses of survey data in two cities show no differences on account of risk behaviour among injectors sourcing equipment from pharmacies compared to syringe exchanges.
HIV prevention coverage indicators need to include measures of pharmacy-based syringe distribution and not only measures of syringe exchange coverage. There is an urgent need to pilot pharmacy-based distribution and exchange projects in Russia as well as other forms of secondary syringe distribution. Alongside expanding the reach of dedicated syringe exchange projects, pharmacy-based syringe distribution, and exchange, may help improve coverage of cost effective HIV prevention measures targeting drug injectors.
PubMed ID
18313910 View in PubMed
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[Advice on preventive measures to HIV-positive persons]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8283
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Feb 10;111(4):458-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-10-1991
Author
S. Lundevall
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Feb 10;111(4):458-9
Date
Feb-10-1991
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
HIV Seropositivity - transmission
Humans
Norway
Patient Education
PubMed ID
2006485 View in PubMed
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Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82481
Source
Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Apr;22(4):871-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Burrows Dave
Author Affiliation
AIDS Projects Management Group, Sydney, Australia. dave@aidsprojects.com
Source
Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Apr;22(4):871-9
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bangladesh
Brazil
Byelarus
China
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Harm Reduction
Humans
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - standards
Patient Advocacy
Program Evaluation
Russia
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Ukraine
Abstract
To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services) should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.
PubMed ID
16612440 View in PubMed
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Amniocentesis and women with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186740
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Feb;25(2):145-48, 149-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Gregory Davies
R Douglas Wilson
Valérie Désilets
Gregory J Reid
Dorothy Shaw
Anne Summers
Philip Wyatt
David Young
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Feb;25(2):145-48, 149-52
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amniocentesis - methods
Canada
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Hepatitis B - prevention & control - transmission
Hepatitis C - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
MEDLINE
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - virology
Prenatal Diagnosis - methods
Risk factors
Abstract
To review the risk of in utero infection through amniocentesis in women with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Review articles, meta-analyses, and MEDLINE searches from 1966 to 2002 for English-language articles related to amniocentesis, fetal and neonatal infection, and hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV.
The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the Evaluation of Evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam.
1. The risk of fetal hepatitis B infection through amniocentesis is low. However, knowledge of the maternal hepatitis B e antigen status is valuable in the counselling of risks associated with amniocentesis. (II-1C) 2. Amniocentesis in women infected with hepatitis C does not appear to significantly increase the risk of vertical transmission, but women should be counselled that very few studies have properly addressed this possibility. (II-2C) 3. In HIV-positive women all noninvasive screening tools should be used prior to considering amniocentesis. (II-2D) 4. For women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV, the addition of noninvasive methods of prenatal risk screening, such as nuchal translucency, triple screening, and anatomic ultrasound, may help in reducing the age-related risk to a level below the threshold for genetic amniocentesis. (II-2C) 5. For those women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV who insist on amniocentesis, every effort should be made to avoid inserting the needle through the placenta. (II-1B) VALIDATION: These guidelines have been approved by the SOGC Genetics Committee, SOGC Executive, and SOGC Council.
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
PubMed ID
12577132 View in PubMed
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An external evaluation of a peer-run "unsanctioned" syringe exchange program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183989
Source
J Urban Health. 2003 Sep;80(3):455-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Evan Wood
Thomas Kerr
Patricia M Spittal
William Small
Mark W Tyndall
Michael V O'Shaughnessy
Martin T Schechter
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada. BC V6Z 1Y6. ewood@hivnet.ubc.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2003 Sep;80(3):455-64
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
British Columbia
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Needle Sharing - adverse effects
Needle-Exchange Programs - organization & administration
Peer Group
Program Evaluation
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk Reduction Behavior
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - virology
Syringes - utilization
Abstract
In Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, difficulty accessing syringes at night has been shown to be strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior among the city's injection drug users (IDUs). On September 1, 2001, the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) initiated an unsanctioned all-night needle-exchange program on a street corner in the heart of the neighborhood where many of the city's IDUs are concentrated. An external evaluation of the population reached by the VANDU exchange was performed through the Vancouver Injection Drug User's Study, a prospective cohort study of IDUs begun in 1996. Persons accessing syringes through the exchange were compared to those active injectors who acquired their syringes from other sources, including the city's fixed site exchange, which closes at 8:00 PM. Overall, 587 active IDUs were seen during the period September 2001 to June 2002; of these individuals, 165 (28.1%) reported using the VANDU exchange. In multivariate analyses, participants who used the VANDU table were more likely to frequently inject cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.44), inject in public (AOR=2.71; 95% CI=1.62-4.53), and require help injecting (OR=2.13; 95% CI=1.33-3.42). Interestingly, use of the table was also independently associated with safer syringe disposal (AOR=2.69; 95% CI=1.38-5.21). Results indicate that the unsanctioned exchange appears to have reached those IDUs at highest risk of HIV infection. Although the cross-sectional nature of the study design warrants caution, we also found that use of the nighttime exchange was strongly associated with higher rates of safe syringe disposal. The data suggest that drug user organizations can play a major role in reducing harm among their peers by reaching the highest risk drug users with harm reduction services. The findings also suggest that other forms of syringe-exchange programs should consider the benefits of offering fixed site nighttime service.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12930883 View in PubMed
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[Antiviral chemoprophylaxis following sexual exposure to HIV]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7640
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Oct 19;160(43):6224-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-19-1998
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Oct 19;160(43):6224-5
Date
Oct-19-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antiviral Agents - administration & dosage
Denmark
Guidelines
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Sexual Behavior
PubMed ID
9803877 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the decision support needs of women from HIV endemic countries regarding voluntary HIV testing in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168113
Source
Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Nov;63(3):292-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Debjani Mitra
M J Jacobsen
Annette O'Connor
Kevin Pottie
Peter Tugwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada. dmitra@cheo.on.ca
Source
Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Nov;63(3):292-300
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS Serodiagnosis
Adult
Canada
Conflict (Psychology)
Counseling
Decision Making
Emigration and Immigration
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - prevention & control
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment
Refugees
Abstract
To describe the decision support needs of immigrant and refugee women from HIV endemic countries regarding decision-making about voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT) in Canada; and the needs of practitioners who support these women in making this decision, in a culturally appropriate manner.
Adapted, semi-structured questionnaires, based on the Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF), were used to interview practitioners and patients. Practitioners from diverse backgrounds were purposefully selected from centers providing VCT in Ottawa. Adult, English-speaking immigrant and refugee women from HIV endemic countries were recruited from a clinic specializing in immigrant health services. Responses were tabulated using descriptive statistics, and emerging themes coded to identify unique factors affecting decision-making.
Analysis revealed differences between practitioner and patient perceptions of the decision-making needs of women from HIV endemic countries regarding VCT. Practitioners identified women's lack of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention as a primary need, while patients identified inadequate awareness of HIV screening and treatment services, and their benefits and harms. Patients also perceived that women would not be aware of the various VCT options, while few practitioners highlighted this concern. Both groups held similar viewpoints about counseling strategies that could improve decision-making.
Women were unaware of the options available to them for VCT. Both practitioners and patients highlighted the issue of stigma and negative outcomes associated with testing that created barriers or contributed to delays in women receiving testing. Women preferred anonymous testing, and recommended that information and decision support regarding HIV testing be provided via non-targeted strategies, and integrated within general health services or public education.
Decision support in the context of VCT can improve decision quality, empowering patients to make informed decisions based on personal values. Study findings can inform the development of clinical guidelines for the routine offering of VCT.
PubMed ID
16876376 View in PubMed
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Associations Between Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Differ by Perpetrator Among Russian Sex Workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308974
Source
AIDS Behav. 2020 Mar; 24(3):812-822
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Sarah M Peitzmeier
Andrea L Wirtz
Alena Peryshkina
Susan Sherman
Elizabeth Colantuoni
Chris Beyrer
Michele R Decker
Author Affiliation
Center for Sexuality and Health Disparities, University of Michigan School of Nursing, 400 N. Ingalls St, Rm 3347, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. speitzme@umich.edu.
Source
AIDS Behav. 2020 Mar; 24(3):812-822
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Condoms - statistics & numerical data
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Intimate Partner Violence - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prevalence
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Safe Sex
Sex Work
Sex Workers - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Partners - psychology
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - psychology
Unsafe Sex - psychology
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Violence is associated with HIV and HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW). However, few studies assess multiple forms of violence and multiple HIV risk behaviors to build a comprehensive picture of how violence is implicated in HIV risk. Using respondent-driven sampling, 754 FSW were recruited in the Russian Federation. Surveys collected data on lifetime exposure to client, police, intimate partner, and pimp violence, as well as recent HIV risk behavior in the forms of injecting drug use (IDU), and inconsistent condom use with intimate partners and clients. Multivariable log-binomial and Poisson regression were used to assess associations between violence and HIV risk behavior outcomes. Lifetime client (31.7%), police (16.0%), intimate partner (15.7%), and pimp (11.4%) violence were prevalent. IDU (10.7%) and inconsistent condom use with intimate partners (45.1%) and clients (22.5%) were common. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and client violence were associated with IDU (ARRIPV 2.12, 95% CI 1.10, 4.10; ARRClient 2.75, 95% CI 1.19, 6.32), IPV and police violence were associated with inconsistent condom use with intimate partners (ARRIPV 1.10, 95% CI 1.01, 1.19; ARRPolice 1.11, 95% CI 1.01, 1.21), and IPV and police violence were associated with inconsistent condom use with clients (ARRIPV 1.49, 95% CI 1.02, 2.17; ARRPolice 1.65, 95% CI 1.19, 2.29). Each perpetrator-specific type of violence was associated with a unique set of HIV risk behaviors. Comprehensive violence prevention programming that addresses multiple perpetrators of violence against FSW, including clients, intimate partners and police, is critical for reducing sexual and drug-related HIV risk in FSW.
PubMed ID
31531737 View in PubMed
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[A strategy for the control of HIV infection and viral hepatitides against the background of the narcotic abuse epidemic].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197220
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):71-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
D V Ostrovskii
Author Affiliation
Fund Return, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):71-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control - transmission
HIV-1
Hepatitis, Viral, Human - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Male
Opioid-Related Disorders - prevention & control
Russia
Abstract
The presence of the epidemic of drug addiction in the Russian Federation is stated: for the recent 10 years the number of drug addicts increased 3.5-fold. The questioning of several thousand drug addicts has revealed that 60% of them have hepatitis B, 80% have hepatitis C, 10% have syphilis. The strategy of controlling HIV infection among drug addicts is proposed. It includes, in the first place, the prevention of the secondary infection from HIV-infected addicts; in the second place, the detection of HIV-infected persons in groups of drug addicts, difficult to establish contacts with; in the third place, the primary prophylaxis within the program "Harm reduction" in the most susceptible groups of drug addicts. The thesis that the prevention of HIV infection must become the prevention of drug addiction by rendering multi-stage assistance to HIV-infected persons, including mainly drug addicts, is substantiated.
PubMed ID
10994113 View in PubMed
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137 records – page 1 of 14.