OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection is critical to improving clinical outcomes for HIV-infected individuals. We sought to characterise the HIV care continuum and identify correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia.
Participants (N=1376) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and completed a sociobehavioural survey and HIV testing from 2010 to 2013. Sample and population estimates were calculated for key steps along the HIV care continuum for HIV-infected MSM and logistic regression methods were used to examine correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection.
15.6% (184/1177; population estimate: 11.6%; 95% CI 8.5% to 14.7%) of participants were HIV infected. Of these, only 23.4% (43/184; population estimate: 13.2; 95% CI 11.0 to 15.4) were previously aware of their infection, 8.7% (16/184 population estimate: 4.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 8.5) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 4.4% (8/164; population estimate: 3.0; 95% CI 0.3 to 5.6) reported an undetectable viral load. Bisexual identity (reference: homosexual; adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.69; 95% CI 1.19 to 11.43), having =5 sexual partners in the last 6 months (reference: =1; AOR: 4.23; 95% CI 1.17 to 15.28), and employer HIV testing requirements (reference: no; AOR: 15.43; 95% CI 1.62 to 147.01) were associated with being unaware of one's HIV infection. HIV testing in a specialised facility (reference: private; AOR: 0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.53) and testing =2 times in the last 12 months (reference: none; AOR: 0.17; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.73) were inversely associated with being unaware of HIV infection.
There is a steep gradient along the HIV care continuum for Moscow-based MSM beginning with low awareness of HIV infection. Efforts that improve access to acceptable HIV testing strategies, such as alternative testing facilities, and linkage to care are needed for key populations.
Bertil Falkenstrom, President of RFHP, which is an organization of support groups for Swedish people with HIV, discusses what life is like for HIV-positive individuals in Sweden. Under the Communicable Diseases Act, all doctor visits are free for Swedish citizens and residents who are HIV-positive. Medication is subsidized, so a patient will never pay more than $150 per year on medication. There are also counseling services available through the public insurance agency to supplement physical treatment. Despite encouragement to return to work, Falkenstrom cites discrimination in the workplace as a challenge for HIV-positive employees. Discrimination is also prevalent toward immigrant populations with HIV, especially Blacks from African countries. RFHP has difficulty designing informational programs to suit these groups, and since HIV-positive immigrants fear discrimination among their own peers, they don't readily participate in developing these programs. Individuals that are tested may remain anonymous, however, they must identify themselves to their doctors, who are required to report it. Partner notification is also handled discretely through counselors or social workers, but this method does not appear efficient.