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2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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"A disease of frozen feelings": ethically working on emotional worlds in a Russian Orthodox Church drug rehabilitation program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140042
Source
Med Anthropol Q. 2010 Sep;24(3):326-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Jarrett Zigon
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Amsterdam, Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology.
Source
Med Anthropol Q. 2010 Sep;24(3):326-43
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Eastern Orthodoxy - psychology
Emotions
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Russia - epidemiology
Social Adjustment
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - ethics - methods - organization & administration
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Abstract
In a Russian Orthodox Church drug rehabilitation program in St. Petersburg, drug addiction was often described as a disease of frozen feelings. This image suggests that rehabilitation is a process of thawing emotional worlds and, thus, allows the emotions to flow once again. In this article I argue that "frozen feelings" is better understood as the unsocial emotional worlds many drug users experience, and that rehabilitation in this church-run program particularly focuses on the cultivation of an emotional world that supports sociality. This is done, I argue, by means of ethically training rehabilitants to learn how to control and manage their emotional worlds, and in so doing, rehabilitants become new moral persons better able to live in the social world.
PubMed ID
20949839 View in PubMed
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Adolescents. Rapid-results, talks with doctors may help reduce teen transmission.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104549
Source
AIDS Policy Law. 2014 Feb;29(3):1,4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014

[AIDS preventive work in Arusha and Kilimanjaro--health education]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7853
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Oct 30;115(26):3278-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-30-1995
Author
K I Klepp
M H Msuya
B A Lyimo
P. Bergsjø
Author Affiliation
Senter for internasjonal helse/HEMIL-senteret, Universitetet i Bergen.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Oct 30;115(26):3278-80
Date
Oct-30-1995
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Developing Countries - statistics & numerical data
English Abstract
Female
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Health education
Humans
International Cooperation
Male
Norway
Socioeconomic Factors
Tanzania - epidemiology
Abstract
Over the past five years the Tanzanian-Norwegian AIDS Project (MUTAN) has assisted the National AIDS Control Programme in creating and testing innovative HIV/AIDS educational programmes. These programmes, designed to reach a variety of target groups, have been implemented throughout the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions and include: public meetings, intensive courses, information centres, radio programmes and school-based programmes. A recent survey of 996 participants (15-54 years old) was designed to assess public exposure to HIV/AIDS information. A total of 72% of the participants reported having heard about AIDS on the radio, 74% having read about AIDS in newspapers, and 52% having heard about AIDS from a health worker during the previous month. Furthermore, 26% had listened to MUTAN's weekly radio programme at least once. 31% knew of MUTAN's information centres, and 15% had visited one of these centres. The results indicate that large proportion of the population is receiving in-depth HIV/AIDS information. It is recommended that future work concentrate on how to reach people with no or little formal education, young adults and women.
PubMed ID
7482460 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions among people living in Russia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263496
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Chiao-Wen Lan
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon
Kate B Carey
Blair T Johnson
Michael P Carey
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Condoms - utilization
European Continental Ancestry Group
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Prostitution - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk Reduction Behavior
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24104461 View in PubMed
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Alcohol Use and Associated Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279026
Source
AIDS Behav. 2016 Mar;20(3):523-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
A L Wirtz
C E Zelaya
C. Latkin
R. Stall
A. Peryshkina
N. Galai
V. Mogilniy
P. Dzhigun
I. Kostetskaya
C. Beyrer
Source
AIDS Behav. 2016 Mar;20(3):523-36
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Homosexuality, Male - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Moscow - epidemiology
Russia
Sexual Behavior - drug effects - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Partners
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Unsafe Sex - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol use is a public health problem in the Russian Federation. This study explored relationships between alcohol use and behavioral risks for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores for 1367 MSM participating in a cross-sectional survey and HIV testing were categorized to: "abstinence/low use", "hazardous use", "harmful use/dependency". Multiple logistic regression models compared dependent variables for sexual and drug use behaviors across alcohol use strata. Hazardous and harmful/dependent alcohol use were significantly associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and drug use. Harmful use/dependency was associated with an increased odds of having more than five male sex partners (last 12 months; adjusted odds ratios-AOR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.25-2.27), inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (AOR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.61-2.96) and, among those using recreational drugs, injection drug use (last month; AOR 4.38: 95 % CI 1.13-17.07) compared to abstinent/low-level users. Harmful/dependent use was marginally associated with HIV infection (AOR 1.48; 95 % CI 0.97-2.25). HIV prevention efforts for MSM in Moscow may benefit from addressing problem alcohol use to mitigate high-risk behaviors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25893659 View in PubMed
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An analysis of respondent driven sampling with Injection Drug Users (IDU) in Albania and the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166823
Source
J Urban Health. 2006 Nov;83(6 Suppl):i73-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Ame Stormer
Waimar Tun
Lisa Guli
Arjan Harxhi
Zinaida Bodanovskaia
Anna Yakovleva
Maia Rusakova
Olga Levina
Roland Bani
Klodian Rjepaj
Silva Bino
Author Affiliation
Evaluation, Surveillance and Research Division, Family Health International, Arlington, VA 22201, USA.
Source
J Urban Health. 2006 Nov;83(6 Suppl):i73-82
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Albania - epidemiology
Data Collection - methods
Female
HIV
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Male
Russia - epidemiology
Sampling Studies
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
Injection drug users in Tirana, Albania and St. Petersburg, Russia were recruited into a study assessing HIV-related behaviors and HIV serostatus using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), a peer-driven recruitment sampling strategy that results in a probability sample. (Salganik M, Heckathorn DD. Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociol Method. 2004;34:193-239). This paper presents a comparison of RDS implementation, findings on network and recruitment characteristics, and lessons learned. Initiated with 13 to 15 seeds, approximately 200 IDUs were recruited within 8 weeks. Information resulting from RDS indicates that social network patterns from the two studies differ greatly. Female IDUs in Tirana had smaller network sizes than male IDUs, unlike in St. Petersburg where female IDUs had larger network sizes than male IDUs. Recruitment patterns in each country also differed by demographic categories. Recruitment analyses indicate that IDUs form socially distinct groups by sex in Tirana, whereas there was a greater degree of gender mixing patterns in St. Petersburg. RDS proved to be an effective means of surveying these hard-to-reach populations.
Notes
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Cites: AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec;9(4):387-40216235135
PubMed ID
17075727 View in PubMed
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Antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent perinatal HIV transmission in St. Petersburg, Russia: too little, too late.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145635
Source
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jul;54(3):304-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Susan D Hillis
Elena Kuklina
Natalia Akatova
Dmitry M Kissin
Elena N Vinogradova
Aza G Rakhmanova
Elena Stepanova
Denise J Jamieson
Joanna Robinson
Charles Vitek
William C Miller
Author Affiliation
Division of Reproductive Health, NCCDPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. shillis@cdc.gov
Source
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jul;54(3):304-10
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - prevention & control
Multivariate Analysis
Pregnancy
Russia - epidemiology
Sentinel Surveillance
Viral Load
Young Adult
Abstract
We evaluated the influence of type and timing of prophylaxis on perinatal HIV transmission in St. Petersburg, Russia.
We linked surveillance data for 1498 HIV-infected mothers delivering from 2004 to 2007 with polymerase chain reaction data for 1159 infants to determine predictors of transmission.
The overall perinatal transmission rate was 6.3% [73 of 1159, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9% to 7.7%]. Among the 12.8% (n = 149) of mother-infant pairs receiving full course (antenatal, intrapartum, postnatal) dual/triple antiretroviral prophylaxis, the transmission rate was 2.7%. Among the 1010 receiving less complete regimens (full course zidovudine, single-dose nevirapine, or incomplete), transmission ranged from 4.1% to 12.2%. Among the 28.9% (330) of mothers initiating antiretroviral drugs or=29 weeks (or not at all) had increased transmission odds (adjusted odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8 to 12.9; odds ratio: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.0 to 13.1, respectively).
In St. Petersburg, the potential for further reductions in perinatal transmission is evident, given low transmission among women receiving early combination prophylaxis.
PubMed ID
20130471 View in PubMed
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210 records – page 1 of 21.