Despite the prevalence of disabilities among persons living in rural areas, scarce data exist on their health care needs. While rural residents generally experience barriers to access to primary health care, these problems are further exacerbated for people with disabilities. This article summarizes findings from the published literature on access to primary health care among people with disabilities living in rural locations. A comprehensive computerized literature search turned up 86 articles meeting the study criteria, focused on the following rural populations affected by disabilities: children and adolescents, working-age adults, the elderly the mentally ill, and people with AIDS. For each of these populations, substantial problems in accessing appropriate health care have been documented. The literature consistently emphasizes the failure of local health care systems in nonmetropolitan areas to adequately address the complex medical and related needs of individuals with disabilities. In the absence of specialized expertise, facilities, and primary care providers trained specifically to care for disabled persons, local programs rely heavily on the use of indigenous paraprofessionals and alternative models of care. Further research is needed to identify and test the efficacy of innovative service delivery strategies to improve health care access for this population.
Russia has high per capita alcohol consumption and an injection-drug-use-driven HIV epidemic. However, the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV infection in Russia is largely unexplored. Thus, we assessed recent alcohol use and associated HIV risk behaviors among HIV-infected persons in St. Petersburg, Russia.
We recruited HIV-infected hospitalized patients from the Botkin Infectious Disease Hospital between June 2001 and March 2002. Interviewers assessed alcohol and drug use with the addiction severity index (ASI) and sex- and drug-risk behaviors with the risk assessment battery (RAB). Lifetime abuse or dependence diagnoses for alcohol and drugs were established by a physician with addiction medicine training.
Among 201 subjects, diagnoses of abuse or dependence (AB/DEP) were common: 9% (19/201) had only alcohol AB/DEP; 39% (78/201) had alcohol and drug AB/DEP; 47% (95/201) had only drug AB/DEP; and 4% (9/201) had no diagnosis of alcohol or drug AB/DEP. Sex- and drug-risk behaviors varied significantly by substance use diagnosis. Subjects with any alcohol AB/DEP had higher sex-risk RAB scores than those with drug only AB/DEP (6.1 versus 3.9, p
National Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences, Queen Mary College, Barts and the London School of Medicine, University of London, 2 Newark Street, E1 2AT, London, UK. email@example.com
Tuberculosis remains a serious public health threat and economic burden in Russia with escalating rates of drug resistance against a background of growing HIV-epidemic. Samara Oblast is one of the regions of the Russian Federation where more than 1% of the population is affected by the HIV-epidemic; almost half of the cases are concentrated in the largely-industrial city of Togliatti with a population of 800 000.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of errors leading to death of HIV-positive patients in general health care hospitals in Togliatti, Russia, in 2008. All (n = 29) cases when tuberculosis was established at autopsy as a cause of death were included.
Median length of hospital stay was 20 days; in 11 cases the death occurred within the first 24 hours of admission. All cases were known to be HIV-positive prior to admission, however HAART was not initiated for any case, and no relevant tests to assess severity of immunosupression were performed despite their availability. No appropriate diagnostic algorithms were applied to confirm tuberculosis. Major gaps were identified in the work of hospital and consulting physicians including insufficient records keeping. In almost all patients earlier regular HIV-relevant tests were not performed due to poor compliance of patients, many of whom abused alcohol and drugs.
We conclude that introduction of prompt and accurate diagnostics tests, adequate treatment protocols and intensive training of physicians in management of AIDS and TB is vital. This should include reviewing standards of care for HIV-positive individuals with accompanying social problems.
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A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p
Human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) DNA was detected in nearly 5% of anal samples collected from HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal, Canada. The rate of detection of HPV97 in the genital tract of Canadian women is unknown. Whether HPV97 is a local epidemic in HIV-seropositive men living in Montreal is also unknown. The prevalence of human papillomavirus type 97 (HPV97) was assessed in cervicovaginal cells from women living in Canada and in anal samples from HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto.
Cervicovaginal lavages collected from 904 women (678 HIV-seropositive, 226 HIV-seronegative) women living in Canada and anal cells collected from 123 HIV-seropositive men living in Toronto were tested for the presence of HPV97 with PCR. HPV97-positive samples were further tested by PCR-sequencing for molecular variant analysis to assess if all HPV97-positive men were infected with the same strain. All cervicovaginal samples were negative for HPV97. HPV97 was detected in anal samples from 6 HIV-seropositive men (4.9%, 95% confidence interval 2.0-10.5%), of whom five had high-grade and one had low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, in addition to 2 to 8 HPV genital genotypes per sample. Four HPV97 variants were defined by four variation sites in the viral control region.
These findings indicate that HPV97 infects in the anal canal of HIV-seropositive men but is not detected in the genital tract of women.
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Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs.