The biological fate of the fish feed additive, ethoxyquin (EQ) was examined in the muscle of Atlantic salmon during 12 weeks of feeding followed by a 2 weeks depuration period. Parent EQ (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline), quinone imine (2,6-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinolone), de-ethylated EQ (6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline) and EQDM (EQ dimer or 1,8'-di(1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-quinoline) were found to be the ubiquitous metabolites of dietary EQ, with EQDM as a main metabolite. A rapid decrease in the level of EQ (2.4 days of half-life) was balanced by an increase in EQDM, giving an unchanged net sum following 2 weeks of depuration. The mandatory 14 days depuration period prior to slaughtering of farmed salmon in Norway was not sufficient for complete elimination of EQ-derived residuals. Post depuration, EQDM accounted for 99% of sum of the two compounds in all treatment groups; possible toxicological effects of EQDM are not known. The individual concentrations of EQ and EQDM and their sum are dependent on EQ level in the feed, consequently, their residual concentrations may be controlled. The theoretical amount of EQ and EQDM consumed in one meal of farmed salmon would be under the recommended ADI, provided that the fish were raised on feed with no more than 150 mg EQ/kg feed, which is the EU maximum limit for EQ in fish feed.
BACKGROUND: Studies from developing countries indicate that intake of animal protein, especially of milk, is associated with greater velocity of linear growth in childhood. Whether the same association exists in industrialized countries, where protein intake is high, is not clear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine associations between protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I (sIGF-I) concentrations, and height in healthy children. DESIGN: We analyzed the associations between protein intake, sIGF-I concentrations, and height in 2.5-y-old children. Diet (7-d record) and sIGF-I (radioimmunoassay) data were available from 90 children (54 boys). RESULTS: The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of protein intake were 2.4, 2.9, and 4.0 g. kg(-1). d(-1), respectively; 63% was animal protein. In multiple linear regressions with adjustment for sex and weight, height (cm) was positively associated with intakes of animal protein (g/d) [0.10 +/- 0.038 (b +/- SE); P = 0.01] and milk (0.0047 +/- 0.002; P = 0.007), but not with those of vegetable protein or meat. The sIGF-I concentration was significantly associated with intakes of animal protein (1.4 +/- 0.53; P = 0.01) and milk (0.049 +/- 0.024; P = 0.045), but not with those of vegetable protein or meat. sIGF-I concentrations were positively associated with height (0.019 +/- 0.008; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Milk intake was positively associated with sIGF-I concentrations and height. An increase in milk intake from 200 to 600 mL/d corresponded to a 30% increase in circulating IGF-I. This suggests that milk compounds have a stimulating effect on sIGF-I concentrations and, thereby, on growth.
The article presents data on influence of technogenic environmental pollution and parents' occupational hazards on sex-matched physical development of preschoolers, their endocrine balance and antioxidant system. The identified features of physical development, endocrine state and antioxidant system prove higher sensitivity of girls to chemical hazards. Significance of the studied parameters necessitate their use in biologic and ecologic monitoring.
Breast-feeding has been linked to slowed postnatal growth. Although the basis for this "weanling's dilemma" is unclear, environmental contaminants in human milk may be of relevance. We studied a Faroese birth cohort of 182 singleton children, born at term in 1994-95. Concentrations of mercury in cord blood and of polychlorinated biphenyls in maternal milk were measured, and duration of breast-feeding was recorded. At 18 months, children who had been exclusively breast-fed for at least 6 months weighed 0.59 kg less [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03, 1.16 kg] and were 1.50 cm [95% CI = 0.52, 2.47 cm] shorter than those not breast-fed. However, calculated transfer of contaminants from human milk fully explained the attenuated growth. Irrespective of duration of breast-feeding, a doubling of the mercury concentration in cord blood was associated with a decrease in weight at 18 months by 0.19 kg (95% CI = 0.03, 0.35 kg) and in height by 0.26 cm (95% CI = -0.02, 0.55 cm). Weight and height at 42 months showed the same tendencies, but the main effect occurred before 18 months of age. Thus, in communities with increased contaminant exposures, risks associated with lactational transfer of toxicants to the infant must be considered when judging the benefits of prolonged breast-feeding.
The paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the ecological situation of the most polluted town of the petroleum region. In-depth studies were made in 309 children aged 4-6 years from 4 children's preschool establishments. It was found that only 37.5% of the preschool children were apparently healthy, allergic diseases were detected in 27.2% of the children, cardiovascular ones were found in 18.8% of the examinees. Eighteen of the 309 children were classified as frequently ill. The physical development of children in the polluted area was less than that in the controls.
We evaluated clinical characteristics and growth in 51 (24 males) long-term survivors of childhood cancer (median follow up 12.7 years). Patients were shorter, had a higher proportion of body fat and higher systolic blood pressure than their controls. The change in relative height during treatment was -0.83 standard deviation score (S.D.S.) in patients with cranial irradiation and -0.32 S.D.S. in patients without cranial irradiation; the figures after treatment were -0.56 and 0.20 S.D.S., respectively. Half (r2 = 0.50) of the variation in growth retardation during therapy could be explained by the cumulative doses of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and vincristine and relative height at diagnosis. Cranial irradiation, increased relative height at diagnosis and young age at diagnosis were significant predictors of growth failure over the total observation period, explaining 43% of the variation. We conclude that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have impaired linear growth, increased body fat mass and elevated systolic blood pressure. Young children who are tall for their age at diagnosis and treated with cranial irradiation have the highest risk of impaired growth after the diagnosis. High doses of 6-MP seem to contribute significantly to growth retardation during therapy.
The aims of this national multicentre study in Finland were to evaluate whether the height velocity of patients with Turner syndrome would increase with the conventional human growth hormone (GH) therapy regimen normally given to GH-deficient children and whether girls with Turner syndrome actually show GH neurosecretory dysfunction. Finally, the study should show whether GH therapy improves height prognosis and, eventually, final height. Twenty-five girls with Turner syndrome, aged 7.5-14.4 years, entered the study. Their ability to secrete GH was determined and, surprisingly, several would have been classified as having GH deficiency. All girls received GH, 0.1 IU/kg/day (maximum dose 4 IU/day) s.c., and once over 12.5 years old, they also received oestradiol valerate and fluoxymesterone. They showed a convincing increase in height velocity, and rapid growth continued during the second year of therapy. The effect of GH therapy on final height is still unknown. The therapy was remarkably free of side-effects.