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Accentuation of suicides but not homicides with rising latitudes of Greenland in the sunny months.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89091
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Björkstén Karin S
Kripke Daniel F
Bjerregaard Peter
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, SLSO, Psykiatri Södra Stockholm, Sköntorpsvägen 29, 2 tr., SE-120 38 Arsta, Sweden. Karin.Sparring.Bjorksten@ki.se
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:20
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - trends
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Cause of Death - trends
Child
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Female
Forensic Medicine
Greenland - epidemiology
Homicide - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Photoperiod
Population Surveillance
Seasons
Suicide - statistics & numerical data - trends
Wounds, Gunshot - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation in suicides has been shown in many countries. We assessed the seasonality and the variation with latitude in suicides and homicides, and the impact of alcohol on the seasonality in suicides. METHODS: Official computerized registers on causes of death in all Greenland during 1968-2002 were used. Sales data on beer from one of the major food store chains for July 2005-June 2006 were examined. Seasonal variation was assessed by Rayleigh's test for circular distributions. RESULTS: There were a total of 1351 suicides and 308 homicides. The suicides rate varied from 4.2/100 000 person-years in 1971 to 128.4/100 000 person-years in 1987. The homicide rate varied from 2.1/100000 person-years in 1969-1970 to 34.8/100 000 person-years in 1988. Out of the 1351 suicides, 80.5% were committed by men and 19.5% by women. Median age was 25 years (n = 1351; Range 11-84 years). Violent methods of suicide were used in 95% of all cases (n = 1286). Out of the 308 homicide victims, 61% were men and 39% were women, and 13% were killed in multiple homicide events.There was a significant seasonal variation with peaks in June and troughs in the winter in all suicide cases (n = 1351, r = 0.07; Z = 7.58, p
PubMed ID
19422728 View in PubMed
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Acute otitis media and age at onset among children in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33376
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 1999 Jan;119(1):65-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
P. Homøe
R B Christensen
P. Bretlau
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. rh03259@rh.dk
Source
Acta Otolaryngol. 1999 Jan;119(1):65-71
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age of Onset
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology
Prevalence
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
This survey examines the age at onset of acute otitis media (AOM) in 591 unselected Greenlandic children aged 3, 4, 5 and 8 years from the two largest towns in Greenland. The attendance rate was 86%. Parental information about episodes of AOM was cross-checked in medical records, which were available for 95% of the children. AOM was defined as episodes with earache, otorrhoea or previous treatment for AOM, with written otoscopic evidence of AOM resulting in treatment with weak analgetics or antibiotics. Recurrent AOM (rAOM) was defined as > or = 5 AOM episodes since birth. In total, 66% of the children had experienced AOM at least once. Of all children, 40% had AOM during the first year of life. Median age of the first episode was 10 months (range: 1-84 months), and there was no sex difference. Children between 7 and 12 months of age were at highest risk of AOM. Children with rAOM had their first AOM episode at a significantly younger age than children with
PubMed ID
10219388 View in PubMed
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Acute otitis media and sociomedical risk factors among unselected children in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3493
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-1999
Author
P. Homøe
R B Christensen
P. Bretlau
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. rh03259@rh.dk
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Date
Jun-15-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Social Environment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociomedical risk factors associated with episodes of acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent AOM (rAOM), and chronic otitis media (COM) in Greenlandic children and especially to point out children at high risk of rAOM (defined as > 5 AOM episodes since birth) and COM which are prevalent among Inuit children all over the Arctic. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and included 740 unselected children, 3, 4, 5, and 8-years-old, living in two major Greenlandic towns, Nuuk and Sisimiut. All children were otologically examined and the parents answered a questionnaire containing sociomedical variables including ethnicity, family history of OM, housing, insulation, crowding, daycare, passive cigarette smoking, breast feeding, type of diet, allergy, and chronic diseases. Historical data were cross-checked in medical records which also formed the basis for the drop-out analyses. Statistical analyses included frequency tests, calculation of odds ratio (OR), and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The attendance rate was 86%. Former episode of AOM was reported by 2/3 of the children, rAOM by 20%, and COM by 9%. The following variables were found significantly more often in children with AOM by simple frequency testing: Parental (OR = 1.83), sibling (OR = 1.62), and parental plus sibling (OR = 2.56) history of OM, crowding (OR = 5.55), long period of exclusive breast feeding ( > 4 months) (OR = 2.47), and recent acute disease (P = 0.034). The following variables were found significantly more often in children with rAOM or COM by simple frequency testing: Parental history of OM (OR = 1.60; OR = 2.11, respectively) and no recall of breast feeding (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively). Also, COM was found significantly more often in children with two Greenlandic parents (OR = 3.07). A multiple logistic regression test denoted only parental history of OM (OR = 1.82) and long period of exclusive breast feeding (OR = 1.14) as significant predictors of AOM. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the risk factors usually associated with AOM could not be confirmed as risk factors in this survey. Parental history of OM and long period of exclusive breast feeding were the strongest factors associated with AOM in Greenlandic children and ethnicity was associated with COM. However, the study confirms that AOM is a multifactorial disease determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors.
PubMed ID
10428404 View in PubMed
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Acute respiratory tract infections and mannose-binding lectin insufficiency during early childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6751
Source
JAMA. 2001 Mar 14;285(10):1316-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-14-2001
Author
A. Koch
M. Melbye
P. Sørensen
P. Homøe
H O Madsen
K. Mølbak
C H Hansen
L H Andersen
G W Hahn
P. Garred
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. ako@ssi.dk
Source
JAMA. 2001 Mar 14;285(10):1316-21
Date
Mar-14-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Alleles
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Carrier Proteins - blood - genetics
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Genotype
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Inuits - genetics
Male
Mannose-Binding Lectins
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Tract Infections - blood - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
CONTEXT: Hospital-based studies have found that increased susceptibility to certain infections is associated with low serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) due to MBL variant alleles. However, the contribution of MBL insufficiency to incidence of common childhood infections at a population level is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MBL insufficiency on risk for acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in unselected children younger than 2 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based, prospective, cohort study conducted in Sisimiut, Greenland. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-two children younger than 2 years who were followed up weekly between August 1996 and August 1998 for morbidity surveillance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Risk of ARI, based on medical history and clinical examination, compared by MBL genotype, determined from blood samples based on presence of structural and promoter alleles. RESULTS: A 2.08-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.06) increased relative risk (RR) of ARI was found in MBL-insufficient children (n = 13) compared with MBL-sufficient children (n = 239; P
Notes
Comment In: JAMA. 2001 Mar 14;285(10):1348-911255392
PubMed ID
11255386 View in PubMed
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Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107728
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenlandic Branch, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Male
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level.
To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use.
The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home.
Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p
Notes
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Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2007 Apr;10(4):364-7017362532
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Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Aug;12(8):1150-619105863
PubMed ID
23984271 View in PubMed
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Adverse metabolic risk profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children compared to Danish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113926
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jun;21(6):1226-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
T. Munch-Andersen
K. Sorensen
L B Andersen
N J Aachmann-Andersen
L. Aksglaede
A. Juul
J W Helge
Author Affiliation
Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. thormunchandersen@gmail.com
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jun;21(6):1226-31
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adiposity - physiology
Adolescent
Apolipoprotein A-I - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Blood pressure
Body Composition
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Denmark - epidemiology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Fasting
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits
Linear Models
Male
Metabolome
Obesity - blood - ethnology
Overweight - blood - ethnology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children from the capital in the southern and from the northern most villages
187 Inuit and 132 Danish children were examined with anthropometrics, pubertal staging, fasting blood samples, and a maximal aerobic test.
Both Inuit children living in Nuuk and the northern villages had significantly higher glucose, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 levels, and diastolic blood pressure compared with Danish children after adjustment for differences in adiposity and aerobic fitness levels. The Inuit children living in Nuuk had significantly higher BMI, body fat %, HbA1 c, and significantly lower aerobic fitness and ApoA1 levels than northern living Inuit children.
Greenlandic Inuit children had adverse metabolic health profile compared to the Danish children, the differences where more pronounced in Inuit children living in Nuuk. The tendencies toward higher prevalence of diabetes and metabolic morbidity in the adult Greenlandic Inuit population may also be present in the Inuit children population.
PubMed ID
23670907 View in PubMed
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Affective disorders among Greenlandic psychiatric patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46217
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Dec;100(6):424-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
I. Lynge
P. Munk-Jørgensen
P B Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Basic Psychiatric Research, Department of Psychiatric Demography, Psychiatric Hospital in Arhus, Risskov, Denmark.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Dec;100(6):424-32
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Cohort Studies
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Sex Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the treatment incidence, diagnostic stability and clinical and social outcome of affective disorders in the Greenlandic population. METHODS: A cohort of Greenlanders first hospitalized in 1980-1983 and diagnosed with an affective disorder at least once during the period 7 to 12 years after first admission formed the study population. The manic-depressive patients who were still alive at follow-up were invited for a Present State Examination, and information about clinical and social condition was obtained for the total cohort. RESULTS: The rates of manic-depressive psychoses diagnosed at first admission or later were 6.6 for men and 20.4 for women per 100,000 individuals of over 15 years of age. The unipolar:bipolar ratio was very low, namely 1:3 for men and 1:2 for women. Outcome was relatively poor. CONCLUSION: Manic-depression is a recognizable diagnostic category in Greenland. Extremely low rates of unipolar disorders in both sexes and high rates of bipolar disorders among women were the most marked findings.
PubMed ID
10626920 View in PubMed
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Age-related macular degeneration among the Inuit in Greenland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6642
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 document  
Author
Andersen, N
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, The University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Macular degeneration - epidemiology - ethnology
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Visual impairment
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical appearance and prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland, to investigate risk factors and to initiate the search for possible genetic markers. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study including all individuals older than 60 years of age, born in Greenland and living in the communities of Nuuk and Sisimiut, was performed in 2000 and 2001. METHODS: All participants underwent an ophthalmologic examination, which was complemented by fundus photography and a questionnaire. RESULTS: 689 individuals, or more than 70%, participated in the study. Data are currently being processed. The preliminary data suggest that AMD among the Inuit is characterised by a rather uniform morphology and poor visual outcome. The detection of more cases of AMD in the early and late stages in relation to intermediate stages furthermore indicates a rapid development of AMD among the Inuit. CONCLUSION: The relative homogeneity of the Inuit population of Greenland may represent an opportunity for identifying the aetiological factors responsible for the development of AMD. The future results of this research project will hopefully also contribute towards an increased focus on the growing number of individuals with visual impairment due to AMD among the Inuit.
PubMed ID
15736677 View in PubMed
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Age-related macular degeneration in Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5386
Source
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Feb;77(1):76-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A. Ostenfeld-Akerblom
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Feb;77(1):76-8
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Comparative Study
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Inuits
Macula Lutea - pathology
Macular Degeneration - ethnology - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Optic Nerve - pathology
Sex Distribution
Visual acuity
Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe a specific Greenlandic type af age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - the Retinochoroidal Atrophy (RCA). METHODS: 135 referred patients in East Greenland were examined in 1997. A colour and a redfree fundus photograph of an 87-year-old Greenlandic woman illustrates the clinical picture of RCA (retinochoriodal atrophy). RESULTS: Of 135 examined patients 22 had AMD. 23 eyes in 12 patients had RCA, which was the most common type af AMD in this Greenlandic investigation. The clinical picture of RCA is peripapillary and central retinochoroidal atrophy and sclerosis resembling a recumbent Russian matúshka doll. The mean age of the 12 patients with RCA was 74.4+/-8.7 years. They were all severely visually handicapped with a visual acuity
PubMed ID
10071154 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and other drug use among students in Greenland--A comparison between some 1999 and 2003 ESPAD data

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9277
Source
Pages 410-413 in J. Lepp�?�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 document  
Author
Poppel, B
Andersen, T
Author Affiliation
Statistics Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland
Source
Pages 410-413 in J. Lepp�?�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Smoking - epidemiology
Students - psychology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Smoking and drinking habits among young people are of great concern in Greenland. The Home Rule government has through the Department of Prevention (PAARISA) carried out several campaigns to highlight the risks of smoking and drinking alcohol. To monitor the changes in these habits Greenland has participated in the European Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) in 1999 and 2003. The objective of this article is to make some preliminary comparisons between the 1999 and 2003 survey results on smoking and drinking alcohol. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: The survey population in both the 1999 and 2003 surveys are all students in the 9th, 10th and 11th grade (persons between 14 and 16 years old). Hence the surveys include students born in 1982-84 and 1986-88, respectively. The ESPAD questionnaire focuses on alcohol and other drug use, but it also includes questions on lifestyle, relations to family and friends and the students' perception of their living conditions. Only answers from respondents born in 1983-84 and 1987-88 and only questions on smoking and drinking habits are analysed in this article. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Smoking and alcohol drinking among students aged 14-16 years has been decreasing from 1999 to 2003 measured by use during the last 30 days. The same trends cannot be found in students' use of marijuana/hashish and sniffing different substances.
PubMed ID
15736695 View in PubMed
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404 records – page 1 of 41.