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1518 records – page 1 of 152.

A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91637
Source
J Hum Evol. 2008 Nov;55(5):772-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Weninger Bernhard
Jöris Olaf
Author Affiliation
Universität zu Köln, Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weyertal 125, 50923 Köln, Germany. b.weninger@uni-koeln.de
Source
J Hum Evol. 2008 Nov;55(5):772-81
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Calibration
China
Chronology as Topic
Climate
Greenland
Hominidae
Humans
Paleontology - methods
Radiometric Dating - methods
Abstract
This paper combines the data sets available today for 14C-age calibration of the last 60 ka. By stepwise synchronization of paleoclimate signatures, each of these sets of 14C-ages is compared with the U/Th-dated Chinese Hulu Cave speleothem records, which shows global paleoclimate change in high temporal resolution. By this synchronization we have established an absolute-dated Greenland-Hulu chronological framework, against which global paleoclimate data can be referenced, extending the 14C-age calibration curve back to the limits of the radiocarbon method. Based on this new, U/Th-based Greenland(Hulu) chronology, we confirm that the radiocarbon timescale underestimates calendar ages by several thousand years during most of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3. Major atmospheric 14C variations are observed for the period of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, which has significant implications for dating the demise of the last Neandertals. The early part of "the transition" (with 14C ages > 35.0 ka 14C BP) coincides with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. This period is characterized by highly-elevated atmospheric 14C levels. The following period ca. 35.0-32.5 ka 14C BP shows a series of distinct large-scale 14C age inversions and extended plateaus. In consequence, individual archaeological 14C dates older than 35.0 ka 14C BP can be age-calibrated with relatively high precision, while individual dates in the interval 35.0-32.5 ka 14C BP are subject to large systematic age-'distortions,' and chronologies based on large data sets will show apparent age-overlaps of up to ca. 5,000 cal years. Nevertheless, the observed variations in past 14C levels are not as extreme as previously proposed ("Middle to Upper Paleolithic dating anomaly"), and the new chronological framework leaves ample room for application of radiocarbon dating in the age-range 45.0-25.0 ka 14C BP at high temporal resolution.
PubMed ID
18922563 View in PubMed
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[90 Strontium in milk-teeth, diet and bones. A comparative study of levels in Denmark, Faeroe Islands and Greenland]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature44580
Source
Nord Med. 1968 Feb 29;79(9):280-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-29-1968

The 1971-72 epidemic of acute viral hepatitis in Godthaab, Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42467
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 1976;11(3):257-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
O. Grove
F. Börsting Larsen
V. Reinicke
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 1976;11(3):257-62
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Epistaxis - etiology
Female
Greenland
Hepatic Encephalopathy - etiology
Hepatitis A - complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hepatitis B antigens
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
gamma-Globulins - therapeutic use
Abstract
Viral hepatitis has been known to occur among the Greenland population endemically as well as in smaller and larger epidemics. A large epidemic of acute hepatitis comprising around 9% of the entire population, viz. more than 4000 notified cases, swept through Greenland between October 1970 and December 1972. 996 verified cases were seen in the Godthaab district and subjected to more detailed studies. Most of the Godthaab cases were seen among children and adolescents, and no disease was observed in children less than one year of age. Out of 996 diagnosed cases 9 showed acute hepatic failure with coma. Two further cases of hepatic coma were referred for treatment from outside the district. Three of these 11 patients recovered spontaneously. Of the residual 8 cases 6 were treated with exchange transfusions and steroids. Four of these survived and recovered completely. No lasting sequelae had been registered in any of the surviving cases of the epidemic up to June 1975 (2 1/2 years after cessation of the epidemic). Prophylaxis with gamma-globulin was undertaken in a medium-sized settlement in which practically the entire population received gamma-globulin when the first case of hepatitis was diagnosed. In this settlement only 7 out of 297 inhabitants contracted hepatitis. By contrast, in a similar settlement where no gamma-globulin was given, more than 30% of the population developed icteric hepatitis. The clinical features and the prophylactic effect of gamma-globulin seem to indicate that the epidemic was caused by the hepatitis A virus. In accordance with this, transitory Australia-antigenaemia was demonstrated in the acute phase in only 2.6% of the cases, possibly inidicating a small admixture of acute hepatitis type B to the epidemic predominantly caused by hepatitis A virus.
PubMed ID
58437 View in PubMed
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The 2007 Royal Colloquium, Narsaq, Greenland: in summary.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95441
Source
Ambio. 2008 Nov;Spec No 14:517-20
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Brändström Dan
Source
Ambio. 2008 Nov;Spec No 14:517-20
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Keywords
Crops, Agricultural
Culture
Greenhouse Effect
Greenland
PubMed ID
19205130 View in PubMed
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Publication Type
Database
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
Aarhus University
Language
Danish
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Database
Digital File Format
Web site (.html, .htm)
Keywords
Governments and Organizations
Denmark / Greenland
Universities
Publications
Research
Knowledge
Abstract
Aarhus University is an academically diverse and strongly research-oriented institution that creates and shares knowledge. The site includes a researcher database with abstracts and publications.
Online Resources
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Abdominal Wall Defects in Greenland 1989-2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292123
Source
Birth Defects Res. 2017 Jul 03; 109(11):836-842
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-03-2017
Author
Merete Bugge
Gitte Drachmann
Peder Kern
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Hans Eiberg
Britta Olsen
Niels Tommerup
Inge-Merete Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Birth Defects Res. 2017 Jul 03; 109(11):836-842
Date
Jul-03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abdominal Wall - physiopathology
Abnormalities, Multiple - epidemiology
Databases, Factual
Digestive System Abnormalities - complications
Female
Gastroschisis - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Greenland
Hernia, Umbilical - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Age
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Registries
Stillbirth
Abstract
In the last decades, an increasing rate of gastroschisis but not of omphalocele has been reported worldwide. Greenland is the world's largest island, but 80% is covered by an ice cap, it has a small population of around 56,000 peoples (as of 2016). The occurrence of abdominal wall defects has never been investigated in Greenland.
The present study is based on data retrieved from three nationwide and two local registries in the Greenlandic health care system over 27 years (1989-2015).
We identified 33 infants with abdominal wall defects born in the study time period. All cases were reclassified to 28 cases of gastroschisis, four cases of omphalocele, and there was 1 infant in the indeterminate group. The point prevalence at birth for gastroschisis increased significantly from 8 to 35 (average 10.7) per 10,000 liveborn and -stillborn infants. Mothers below 20 years of age represented 23% of all cases and the prevalence for this group was 17 per 10,000 liveborn and stillborn. Perinatal mortality for infants with gastroschisis was high (18%), and 1 year survival was 71%. For omphalocele, the prevalence varied from 8 to 11 per 10,000 liveborn and stillborn infants. There was no increasing rate in the period, further highlighting an etiological difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele.
This study confirms the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis in Greenland in the period from 1989 to 2015. The average was 10.7 per 10,000 liveborn and -stillborn infants and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the highest prevalence ever reported. Birth Defects Research 109:836-842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed ID
28464537 View in PubMed
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ABH secretion polymorphism in Icelanders, Aland Islanders, Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi and Greenland Eskimos: a review and new data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237022
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 1986 May-Jun;13(3):273-85
Publication Type
Article
Author
A W Eriksson
K. Partanen
R R Frants
J C Pronk
P J Kostense
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 1986 May-Jun;13(3):273-85
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System - genetics
Adult
Aged
Alleles
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
European Continental Ancestry Group
Finland
Greenland
Humans
Iceland
Inuits
Male
Polymorphism, Genetic
Saliva - immunology
Sweden - ethnology
Abstract
The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis; the dilution effect has not been as strong in Iceland as on the European continent.
PubMed ID
3752918 View in PubMed
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Abnormal Papanicolaou smear. A population-based study of risk factors in Greenlandic and Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25362
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1990;69(1):79-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S K Kjaer
P. Poll
H. Jensen
G. Engholm
B J Haugaard
C. Teisen
R B Christensen
K A Möller
B F Vestergaard
E M de Villiers
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1990;69(1):79-86
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Contraception Behavior
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Greenland
Herpes Genitalis - complications
Humans
Papillomavirus
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sexual Behavior
Smoking
Tumor Virus Infections - complications
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia - diagnosis - etiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - etiology
Vaginal Smears
Abstract
Possible risk factors for abnormal Papanicolaou smear were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. From Nuuk (Greenland) and Nykøbing Falster (Denmark), random samples of 800 women aged 20-39 years were drawn. Totals of 586 and 661 women were included in Greenland and Denmark, respectively. All women went through a personal interview, and had a gynecologic examination including a PAP smear and cervical swab for HPV analysis. A blood sample was taken for analysis of HSV type specific antibodies. Multiple sexual partners was the most important risk factor for abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 4.2). An infectious etiology was also indirectly supported by a relatively protective effect of barrier contraceptive methods (OR = 0.6). The simultaneous finding of HPV 16/18 as a significant risk factor (OR = 2.4) cannot be taken uncritically as support for a causal effect of this HPV type, since such a relationship between cytological changes of the cervix and HPV infection could also emerge if the positive PAP smear was not just a measure of intra-epithelial neoplasia but also an expression of the infection itself on the cervix.
PubMed ID
2161172 View in PubMed
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1518 records – page 1 of 152.