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'A sort of destiny': the multi-jurisdictional response to sewage pollution in the Great Lakes, 1900-1930.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192881
Source
Sci Can. 1998-1999;22:103-29
Publication Type
Article
Author
J. Read
Source
Sci Can. 1998-1999;22:103-29
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Great Lakes Region
History, 20th Century
Humans
Legislation as Topic - history
Public Health - history
Typhoid Fever - history
Water Pollution - history
Water Purification - history
Abstract
At the turn of the twentieth century, water pollution was the primary vector spreading waterborne disease and a public health issue. In the Great Lakes basin, unprecedentedly high mortality from typhoid fever prompted a conference of federal and provincial public health officials in 1910. Three related initiatives resulted: the provincial government amended the Public Health Act in 1912; federal legislators attempted to develop national pollution control legislation between 1912 and 1915; the International Joint Commission investigated cross boundary pollution in 1912 and recommended a convention to control it. Of the three initiatives, only the provincial Public Health Act amendments were carried to fruition. By 1915, the almost universal adoption of chlorine treatment for municipal water supplies effectively controlled waterborne disease and there was no longer a perceived need for further action.
PubMed ID
11624112 View in PubMed
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Biomarkers for Great Lakes priority contaminants: halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213763
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Dec;103 Suppl 9:7-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1995
Author
M M Feeley
Author Affiliation
Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. mfeeley@hpb.hwc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Dec;103 Suppl 9:7-16
Date
Dec-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Adult
Benzofurans - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Biological Markers - analysis
Canada
Child
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Great Lakes Region
Humans
Infant
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives - analysis - blood
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Abstract
One of the major goals of the Great Lakes Action Plan is to actively accumulate and assess toxicological information on persistent toxic substances found in the Great Lakes basin. As part of Health Canada's commitment to this plan, a review of biomarkers for the environmental contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) was conducted. In general, while food consumption was identified as the major source of human exposure to both contaminant groups, certain commodities, such as fish, milk and dairy products, and meat, were found to predominate. Due to the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants and their propensity to bioaccumulate, all humans will have detectable body burdens, which in certain cases can be positively associated with the consumption of particular foods (i.e., PCBs and freshwater fish from the Great Lakes). When dealing with environmental exposure only, relating specific effect biomarkers to contaminant exposure or tissue levels was difficult, due in part to the complex nature of the exposure and the nonspecific nature of the effect. For PCBs, the most likely biomarkers of effect included some form of alteration in lipid metabolism (serum triglyceride/cholesterol levels) and elevation of hepatic-related enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Cross-species extrapolation also indicates the potential for neurotoxicologic effects to occur in humans. For PCDDs/PCDFs, dermatologic lesions (chloracne) and indications of hepatic enzyme induction have been documented, but primarily due to occupational or high acute accidental exposures. Recent evidence suggests that neonates may represent a potential at-risk population due to relatively high exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs, as with PCBs, during breast feeding as compared to standard adult dietary intake. Future areas of potential benefit for biomarker development include immunologic and endocrine effects, primarily based on biologic plausibility from experimental animal research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8635442 View in PubMed
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Blood mercury levels among Ontario anglers and sport-fish eaters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179470
Source
Environ Res. 2004 Jul;95(3):305-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Donald C Cole
Jill Kearney
Luz Helena Sanin
Alain Leblanc
Jean-Phillippe Weber
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 12 Queen's Park Crescent, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. donald.cole@utoronto.ca
Source
Environ Res. 2004 Jul;95(3):305-14
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Ethnic Groups
Female
Fisheries
Food Contamination
Great Lakes Region
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mercury - blood
Middle Aged
Ontario
Recreation
Seafood
Abstract
We conducted two surveys of Ontario (Canada) fishers: a stratified sample of licensed anglers in two Lake Ontario communities (anglers, n=232) and a shore and community-based sample in five Great Lakes' Areas of Concern (AOC eaters, n=86). Among the 176 anglers consuming their catch, the median number of sport-fish meals/year was 34.2 meals and 10.9, respectively, in two communities, with a mean blood total mercury level among these sport-fish consumers of 2.8 microg/L. The vast majority of fish eaten by AOC eaters was from Ontario waters (74%). For AOC eaters, two broad country-of-origin groups were assembled: Euro-Canadians (EC) and Asian-Canadians (AC). EC consumed a median of 174 total fish meals/year and had a geometric mean total mercury level of 2.0 microg/L. Corresponding AC figures were 325 total fish meals/year and 7.9 microg/L. Overall, mercury levels among AOC eaters were higher than in many other Great Lakes populations but lower than in populations frequently consuming seafood. In multivariate models, mercury levels were significantly associated with levels of fish consumption among both anglers and EC AOC eaters. Given the nutritional and social benefits of fish consumption, prudent species and location choices should continue.
PubMed ID
15220065 View in PubMed
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Blood PCB, p,p'-DDE, and mirex levels in Great Lakes fish and waterfowl consumers in two Ontario communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202776
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S138-S149
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
J P Kearney
D C Cole
L A Ferron
J P Weber
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S138-S149
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Ducks
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fisheries
Fishes
Food Contamination
Geese
Great Lakes Region
Humans
Insecticides - blood
Male
Mirex - blood
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Public Health
Research Design
Risk assessment
Abstract
PCB, p,p'-DDE, and mirex levels were examined in blood plasma samples of 232 anglers from Cornwall and Mississauga, Ontario, in a pilot study to establish the feasibility and suitability of using a cohort of Ontario fish license holders for large-scale health studies. Great Lakes fish, waterfowl, and ocean fish consumption were examined as predictors of contaminant levels using regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender, and community. Levels of Great Lakes fish and waterfowl consumption and contaminant levels were generally low in comparison with those observed in other Great Lakes studies. However, even within these low levels, Great Lakes fish consumption was associated with increased blood plasma PCB levels in men and mirex levels in both men and women. Waterfowl consumption was associated with higher plasma PCB (men and women), DDE (men only), and mirex levels (men and Cornwall women), and requires further exploration. We conclude that other study designs are required (to identify high consumers) for carrying out studies of health effects associated with high levels of Great Lakes fish and waterfowl consumption.
PubMed ID
10092427 View in PubMed
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Canadian health databases relevant to Great Lakes Basin research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211965
Source
Toxicol Ind Health. 1996 May-Aug;12(3-4):551-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
K C Johnson
Author Affiliation
Environmental Risk Assessment and Case Surveillance Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Toxicol Ind Health. 1996 May-Aug;12(3-4):551-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced
Cohort Studies
Data Collection
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Great Lakes Region
Humans
Information Systems
Neoplasms - chemically induced - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Ontario
Public Health - standards
Risk factors
Abstract
Several population-based health databases exist in Canada which provide valuable systematic information for facilitating epidemiological evaluation of human health in the Great Lakes Basin. They include the long-established Canadian Mortality Database, a national birth defects registry, a provincial hospitalization database, and provincial and national cancer registry systems. The most recent addition is the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System which currently is being implemented to allow for detailed evaluation of air and water quality concerns in relation to a range of cancer types. The system includes statistical evaluation of geographical cancer incidence patterns; development of a national environmental quality database; and systematic collection of individual risk factor information for a large number of newly diagnosed cancer cases and a population control group. A brief description of each database and examples of relevant research using each of these databases is presented.
PubMed ID
8843571 View in PubMed
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Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192290
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Dec;109 Suppl 6:827-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2001
Author
M. Gilbertson
J. Brophy
Author Affiliation
International Joint Commission, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. gilbertsonm@windsor.ijc.org
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Dec;109 Suppl 6:827-43
Date
Dec-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Great Lakes Region
Hazardous Waste
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity - trends
Mortality - trends
Ontario - epidemiology
Policy Making
Public Health
Public Policy
Water Pollutants - adverse effects
Abstract
The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement.
Notes
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PubMed ID
11744501 View in PubMed
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Discrimination and participation in traditional healing for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112532
Source
J Community Health. 2013 Dec;38(6):1115-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Jacquelene F Moghaddam
Sandra L Momper
Timothy Fong
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, jacquelene@post.harvard.edu.
Source
J Community Health. 2013 Dec;38(6):1115-23
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - ethnology
Female
Great Lakes Region - ethnology
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Inuits - psychology
Logistic Models
Male
Medicine, Traditional - utilization
Middle Aged
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Social Discrimination - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Contemporary American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) who live in urban areas today face the daunting task of navigating an urban landscape while maintaining the facets of their respective Native cultures. While AIs/ANs continue to grapple with the intergenerational trauma associated with forced assimilation, relocation movements, and boarding schools, these traumas have manifested themselves in elevated rates of psychopathology. AIs/ANs have elevated rates of domestic abuse, poverty, suicide, and substance misuse. Furthermore, AIs/ANs, like many other minority cultures often face discrimination in their everyday lives. In light of the aversive experiences they face, AI/AN people have followed the tenets of ritual and traditional healing to address imbalances in the body, mind, and spirit. For providers working with AI/AN clients, it is important to understand who is using traditional healing and why they are using alternative services. Secondary data analyses of survey data from 389 urban AIs/ANs were utilized in order to determine the relationship between experiences of discrimination and traditional healing use. Analyses indicated that experiences of discrimination in healthcare settings were significantly associated with participation in traditional healing. Analyses also indicated that nearly a quarter of the sample reported discrimination in a healthcare setting, roughly half of the sample had used traditional healing, and that the majority of those who had used traditional healing were women, and ages 35-44 (27%). This study calls attention to the socio-demographic factors implicated in traditional healing use by urban AI/AN people, in addition to the clinical and demographic characteristics of this sample.
PubMed ID
23821254 View in PubMed
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Eco-toxicology: traditional and post-normal interpretations of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195681
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2000 Dec;9(6):365-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
M. Gilbertson
Author Affiliation
International Joint Commission, 100 Ouellette Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9A 6T3.
Source
Ecotoxicology. 2000 Dec;9(6):365-75
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Ecosystem
Fresh Water
Great Lakes Region
Humans
International Cooperation
Program Development
Toxicology - legislation & jurisprudence
United States
Water Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
Eco-toxicology is a potentially useful fusing of the two distinct disciplines of ecology and environmental toxicology. However, in applying an ambiguous "ecosystem approach," since the late 1970s, to the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, there have been difficulties in delimiting the Great Lakes issues to be addressed under the Agreement and in ensuring that general biological resource management and conservation issues are dealt with separately under other existing mandates. There is a priority need for managers involved in the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to decide whether the purpose remains one of maintaining and restoring Great Lakes water quality or whether it has already been transformed into a broad program to maintain and restore ecosystem integrity throughout the entire Great Lakes basin. Parts of this ambiguity may have arisen as a result of this fusing of ecology and environmental toxicology.
PubMed ID
11214441 View in PubMed
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The experience of being an Anishinabe man healer: ancient healing in a modern world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156015
Source
J Cult Divers. 2008;15(2):70-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Roxanne Struthers
Valerie S Eschiti
Beverly Patchell
Author Affiliation
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Source
J Cult Divers. 2008;15(2):70-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Canada
Career Choice
Great Lakes Region
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Personnel - education
Health services needs and demand
Holistic Health
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Interprofessional Relations
Male
Medicine, Traditional
Middle Aged
Mythology - psychology
Nursing Methodology Research
Professional Role - psychology
Professional-Patient Relations
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Abstract
The purpose was to understand the experience of being an Anishinabe man healer. Of particular relevance, healers explained how they provide Indigenous health care in a world dominated by Western biomedicine.
A phenomenological approach was utilized to interview four Anishinabe men healers who reside in the United States and Canada.
In-person interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The interviews were audiotaped when permitted; otherwise notes were taken. Data analysis was conducted using techniques from Colaizzi and van Manen.
Seven themes were identified: (1) The Healer's Path, (2) Health as Wholeness, (3) Healing Ways, (4) Healing Stories, (5) Culture Interwoven with Healing, (6) Healing Exchange, and (7) Connection with Western Medicine.
The themes identified inform nursing practice by pointing out the importance of culture within traditional Indigenous healing, as well as the need for a holistic approach when caring for Indigenous people. Additionally, the Indigenous men healers acknowledged their connection with Western medicine as part of the process of healing for their clients. This emphasizes the need for nurses and other health care providers to become knowledgeable regarding traditional Indigenous healing that their clients may be receiving, in order to foster open communication.
PubMed ID
18649444 View in PubMed
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Exposure assessment and initial intervention regarding fish consumption of tribal members of the Upper Great Lakes Region in the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179469
Source
Environ Res. 2004 Jul;95(3):325-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
John A Dellinger
Author Affiliation
College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, 53201, USA. jdelling@uwm.edu
Source
Environ Res. 2004 Jul;95(3):325-40
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Geographic Information Systems
Great Lakes Region
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Indians, North American
Knowledge
Male
Mercury - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Risk factors
Tissue Distribution
United States
Abstract
The Ojibwe Health Study (OHS) has concluded 10 years of data collection and exposure assessment. Eight hundred and twenty-two participants from tribes in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota (USA) completed fish consumption and environmental risk perception questionnaires. Many participants provided hair and blood samples for mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residue analyses as body burden indicators of these persistent environmental pollutants. Fish were collected by the tribal organizations and contaminants were analyzed for numerous tribal reports and professional environmental journal articles, these data were used by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission to produce tribal-specific geographic information systems maps as part of a public health intervention strategy. These maps are currently available at for six Wisconsin tribes that regularly harvest walleye. To determine the health impacts (if any) of pollutants on cancer, diabetes, and reproduction, it was necessary to know the recent trends in key indicators such as cancer mortality ratios and birth gender ratios. The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council provided the OHS and each participating tribe in Wisconsin and Michigan with a health profile. Total fish consumption (estimated by recall) for 720 tribal participants was self-reported as 60 g/day, but the highest actual consumption was measured as 11.2 g/day in one of the tribal groups. The highest blood concentrations in tribal participants were 18.6 ppb total serum PCBs and 11.8 ppb total blood mercury. Ninety percent of the participants had less than 3.8 ppb total serum PCBs and 2.6 ppb total blood mercury. Compared to other studies of subsistence fishing populations, these exposures were only moderately elevated and not high enough to warrant widespread restrictions on diets. Furthermore, the benefits of eating a fish diet must be continually emphasized. However, sport fishermen and their families who consume larger and more contaminated fish should abide by their state fish consumption advisories to minimize their health risks.
PubMed ID
15220067 View in PubMed
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