Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disease among Caucasians. Studies exploring the prevalence of anxiety and depression in adult CF patients are few, show inconsistent findings and rarely include comparisons with general populations. Prevalence and degree of anxiety and depression were investigated in adult CF patients in Sweden, Belgium, Germany and the UK, and compared to corresponding general population data.
Adult non-transplanted CF patients from the three largest CF-centres (out of four) in Sweden (N = 129; Age range 18-70 years; 50 % women) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Studies using HADS in adult CF populations in the UK, Germany, and Belgium were included, as well as HADS normative data from the corresponding general populations.
No elevated risk for anxiety and depression was found among the CF patients. However, a Country x Group interaction effect emerged; CF patients experienced a higher degree of anxiety than the general population in Sweden, but not in the other countries, though this finding did not remain significant in a logistic regression analysis. In Sweden the effect was limited to women. A Country x Group interaction effect was also found for Depression; CF patients experienced lower degree of depression than the general population in Sweden, Germany and the UK, but not in Belgium/Netherlands.
Contrary to earlier outcomes, the present results do not indicate any general elevated risk for anxiety and depression among CF patients. Anxiety was slightly higher in the Swedish CF population, compared to the general population; this finding was not seen in the other countries. Depression among CF patients was lower than or similar to that in the general populations in the studied countries.
Variants in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via an effect on adiposity/obesity. Given the important role of obesity in the aetiology of both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, our aim was to establish whether FTO variants are also implicated in PCOS susceptibility.
We performed a genetic association study of FTO variant rs9939609 using case-control analyses, conducted in 463 PCOS patients (geometric mean BMI 27.5 kg/m(2)) and 1,336 female controls (geometric mean BMI 25.3 kg/m(2)) of UK British/Irish origin. We also sought evidence for associations between FTO variation and circulating testosterone levels in 324 UK PCOS patients and 1,000 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966. Outcome measures included FTO rs9939609 genotype frequencies by participant group and androgen measures (testosterone, free androgen index) by genotype.
There was a significant association between FTO genotype and PCOS status in the UK case-control analysis, which was attenuated by adjustment for BMI (Cochran-Armitage test, odds ratio [per minor allele copy] 1.30 [95% CI 1.12, 1.51], p = 7.2 x 10(-4) [unadjusted], p = 2.9 x 10(-3) [adjusted]). This association was most evident in obese PCOS patients (PCOS patients below median BMI vs UK controls, p = 0.11; above median BMI vs controls, p = 2.9 x 10(-4)). No relationship between FTO genotype and androgen levels was seen.
We provide the first evidence that variants that predispose to common obesity also result in altered susceptibility to PCOS, confirming the mechanistic link between these conditions. The predominant effect of FTO variants on PCOS susceptibility is probably mediated through adiposity.
Audiological testing, interviews and exposure measurements were used to collect data on the health effects of styrene exposures in 313 workers from fiberglass and metal-product manufacturing plants and a mail terminal. The audiological test battery included pure-tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), psychoacoustic modulation transfer function, interrupted speech, speech recognition in noise and cortical response audiometry (CRA). Workers exposed to noise and styrene had significantly poorer pure-tone thresholds in the high-frequency range (3 to 8 kHz) than the controls, noise-exposed workers and those listed in a Swedish age-specific database. Even though abnormalities were noted on DPOAE and CRA testing, the interrupted speech and speech recognition in noise tests were the more sensitive tests for styrene effects. Further research is needed on the underlying mechanisms to understand the effects of styrene and on audiological test batteries to detect changes in populations exposed to solvents.
To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk and age at onset of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a genomewide association study of 469 438 SNPs.
Case-control study with replication.
Memory referral clinics in Canada and the United Kingdom.
The hypothesis-generating data set consisted of 753 individuals with AD by National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria recruited from 9 memory referral clinics in Canada and 736 ethnically matched control subjects; control subjects were recruited from nonbiological relatives, friends, or spouses of the patients and did not exhibit cognitive impairment by history or cognitive testing. The follow-up data set consisted of 418 AD cases and 249 nondemented control cases from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council Genetic Resource for Late-Onset AD recruited from clinics at Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, and King's College London, London, England.
Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for association of SNPs with AD by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, study site, and French Canadian ancestry (for the Canadian data set). Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox proportional hazards regression for age at onset with similar covariate adjustments.
Unadjusted, SNP RS4420638 within APOC1 was strongly associated with AD due entirely to linkage disequilibrium with APOE. In the multivariable adjusted analyses, 3 SNPs within the top 120 by P value in the logistic analysis and 1 in the Cox analysis of the Canadian data set provided additional evidence for association at P
Smoking cessation improves physical health but it has been suggested that in vulnerable individuals it may worsen mental health. This study aimed to identify the short- and longer-term effects of stopping smoking on depression and anxiety in the general population and in those with a history of these disorders.
Sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, and mental and physical health were assessed using established measures in the ATTEMPT cohort, an international longitudinal study of smokers (n = 3645). Smokers who had stopped for at least 3 months or less than 3 months at the 12-month follow-up were compared with current smokers (n = 1640).
At follow-up, 9.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-11.2] of smokers had stopped for less than 3 months and 7.5% (95% CI 6.3-8.9) for at least 3 months. Compared with current smokers, prevalence of depression prescriptions obtained in the last 2 weeks was lower for those who had stopped for less than 3 months [odds ratio (OR) 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96] or at least 3 months (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06-0.94) after adjusting for baseline prescription levels and confounding variables. Adjusted prevalence of recent depression symptoms was also lower for ex-smokers who had stopped for less than 3 months (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) or at least 3 months (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.67) than among continuing smokers. There was no change in anxiety measures in the general population or any increase in anxiety or depression symptoms in ex-smokers with a past history of these conditions.
Smoking cessation does not appear to be associated with an increase in anxiety or depression and may lead to a reduced incidence of depression.
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that certain forms of adult leukemia may be related to cigarette smoking. METHODS: To evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and adult leukemia, we conducted a meta-analysis of available studies. Data were identified through an English-language MEDLINE search for the period 1970 through 1992 and through our knowledge of ongoing and unpublished studies. Among the studies identified, the meta-analysis included seven prospective studies and eight case-control studies. The US Surgeon General's criteria were used to assess the evidence for causality. RESULTS: A positive association between smoking and certain histologic types of leukemia was found in both prospective and case-control studies. The summary smoking-related risk derived from prospective studies (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.4) was greater than that based on case-control data (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.2). Prospective data suggested an elevated risk of myeloid leukemia associated with cigarette smoking (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.6). Pooled case-control data showed increased smoking-associated risk for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.5). Risk of leukemia increased according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Population-attributable risk calculations suggested that approximately 14% of all US leukemia cases (including 17% of myeloid and 14% of acute nonlymphocytic leukemias) may be due to cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The consistency, temporality, and biologic plausibility of this relationship augment our findings, which support a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and certain forms of adult leukemia. Further studies are needed to examine risk among women, dose-response effects, and variation in risk by histologic type.
Comment In: Arch Intern Med. 1993 Feb 22;153(4):425-78435021
The epidemiology of severe insomnia and its effect on quality of life and healthcare consumption was assessed in a survey of the general population of five northern European countries. Applying established consumer sampling techniques, insomnia sufferers were selected from the general population using a questionnaire, conducted by face-to-face interview, and severity of insomnia was ranked (severe, mild/moderate, no sleep complaint) using a specific algorithm. Population samples were matched according to case control methodology for age, gender and geographical region. A second questionnaire gathered information on sleep problems, quality of life (SF-36 scores) and healthcare consumption. The prevalence of severe insomnia ranged from 4% to 22%, was higher in females than in males, but did not increase significantly with age. Patients with severe insomnia had been experiencing sleeping problems for a median of 2-6 years. In all countries, insomnia had a negative impact on quality of life, and the degree of impairment in quality of life was directly related to the severity of insomnia. Individuals with severe insomnia also showed a higher level of healthcare consumption. Despite this, severe insomnia did not appear to feature prominently in the doctor-patient relationship.
Lung cancer is the most common neoplastic disease in Eastern and Central Europe. The role of hereditary factors in lung carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Family history (FH) of lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers might be a strong predictor of the lung cancer risk. We investigated family history of cancer among first-degree relatives of 2,861 patients with lung cancer and 3,118 controls from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and United Kingdom within the IARC Multicenter Case-Control Study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, study center, education, tobacco smoking, and number of first-degree relatives. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of 41 studies on FH of cancer and lung cancer risk. Positive FH of lung cancer increased risk of lung cancer with OR of 1.63 (95%CI: 1.31-2.01), and having two or more affected relatives with lung cancer further increased the risk of lung cancer with OR 3.60 (95%CI: 1.56-8.31). Among subjects aged less than 50, the OR for FH of lung cancer was 2.08 (95%CI: 1.18-3.63). The associations were generally stronger for squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma subtypes. Heterogeneity in results was not found with respect to smoking status and gender. A significant association was not observed for FH of other smoking-related tumors. The results of meta-analysis were consistent with that of our study with regard to young onset, non-smokers and histology. FH of lung cancer is a predictor of an increased risk of lung cancer, especially in subjects aged less than 50.