To compare the effects of two antihypertensive treatment strategies for the prevention of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular events in the large subpopulation (n=5137) with diabetes mellitus in the blood pressure-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial.
Patients had either untreated hypertension or treated hypertension. For those with type II diabetes mellitus, inclusion criteria required at least two additional risk factors. Patients were randomized to amlodipine with addition of perindopril as required (amlodipine-based) or atenolol with addition of thiazide as required (atenolol-based). Therapy was titrated to achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mmHg.
The trial was terminated early due to significant benefits on mortality and stroke associated with the amlodipine-based regimen. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the amlodipine-based treatment reduced the incidence of the composite endpoint--total cardiovascular events and procedures--compared with the atenolol-based regimen (hazard ratio 0.86, confidence interval 0.76-0.98, P=0.026). Fatal and nonfatal strokes were reduced by 25% (P=0.017), peripheral arterial disease by 48% (P=0.004) and noncoronary revascularization procedures by 57% (P
Resistant hypertension is a well recognized clinical entity, which has been inadequately researched to date.
A multivariable Cox model was developed to identify baseline predictors of developing resistant hypertension among 3666 previously untreated Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcome Trial (ASCOT) patients and construct a risk score to identify those at high risk. Secondary analyses included evaluations among all 19?257 randomized patients.
One-third (1258) of previously untreated, and one-half (9333) of all randomized patients (incidence rates 75.2 and 129.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively) developed resistant hypertension during a median follow-up of 5.3 and 4.8 years, respectively. Increasing strata of baseline SBP (151-160, 161-170, 171-180, and >180?mmHg) were associated with increased risk of developing resistant hypertension [hazard ratio 1.24 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.81-1.88), 1.50 (1.03-2.20), 2.15 (1.47-3.16), and 4.43 (3.04-6.45), respectively]. Diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, male sex, and raised BMI, fasting glucose, and alcohol intake were other significant determinants of resistant hypertension. Randomization to amlodipine?±?perindopril vs. atenolol?±?thiazide [0.57 (0.50-0.60)], previous use of aspirin [0.78 (0.62-0.98)], and randomization to atorvastatin vs. placebo [0.87 (0.76-1.00)] significantly reduced the risk of resistant hypertension. Secondary analysis results were similar. The risk score developed allows accurate risk allocation (Harrell's C-statistic 0.71), with excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow ? statistics, P?=?0.99). A 12-fold (8.4-17.4) increased risk among those in the highest vs. lowest risk deciles was apparent.
Baseline SBP and choice of subsequent antihypertensive therapy were the two most important determinants of resistant hypertension in the ASCOT population. Individuals at high risk of developing resistant hypertension can be easily identified using an integer-based risk score.
Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed dyslipidaemic.
Of 19 342 hypertensive patients (aged 40-79 years with at least three other cardiovascular risk factors) randomised to one of two antihypertensive regimens in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, 10,305 with nonfasting total cholesterol concentrations 6.5 mmol/L or less were randomly assigned additional atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo. These patients formed the lipid-lowering arm of the study. We planned follow-up for an average of 5 years, the primary endpoint being non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Data were analysed by intention to treat.
Treatment was stopped after a median follow-up of 3.3 years. By that time, 100 primary events had occurred in the atorvastatin group compared with 154 events in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.50-0.83], p = 0.0005). This benefit emerged in the first year of follow-up. There was no significant heterogeneity among prespecified subgroups. Fatal and non-fatal stroke (89 atorvastatin vs 121 placebo, 0.73 [0.56-0.96], p = 0.024), total cardiovascular events (389 vs 486, 0.79 [0.69-0.90], p = 0.0005), and total coronary events (178 vs 247, 0.71 [0.59-0.86], p = 0.0005) were also significantly lowered. There were 185 deaths in the atorvastatin group and 212 in the placebo group (0.87 [0.71-1.06], p = 0.16). Atorvastatin lowered total serum cholesterol by about 1.3 mmol/L compared with placebo at 12 months, and by 1.1 mmol/L after 3 years of follow-up.
The reductions in major cardiovascular events with atorvastatin are large, given the short follow-up time. These findings may have implications for future lipid-lowering guidelines.
We investigated 3 hypotheses: (1) N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular disease events in patients with hypertension, (2) NT-proBNP is associated with blood pressure variability, and (3) NT-proBNP predicts benefit from antihypertensive regimens. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) randomized a subset of 6549 patients at risk with no history of coronary heart disease to either atenolol-based or amlodipine-based blood pressure-lowering treatment. During 5.5 years of follow-up, 485 cardiovascular disease cases accrued and were matched with 1367 controls. Baseline and 6-month in-trial NT-proBNP were measured. The results show that NT-proBNP improves cardiovascular disease risk prediction beyond established predictors, continuous net reclassification improvement of 22.3% (P