OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal development and peripheral concentrations of gonadotrophins and sex hormones in children with shunted hydrocephalus compared with healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: 114 patients (52 females, 62 males) and 73 healthy controls (35 females, 38 males) aged 5 to 20 years were analysed for stage of puberty, age at menarche, testicular volume, basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone and oestradiol concentrations, and free androgen index. RESULTS: Male gonadal and male and female pubic hair development occurred significantly earlier in the patients than in the controls. The mean age at menarche was significantly lower in the female patients than in their controls (11.7 v 13.2 years; p
The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.
OBJECTIVES. To investigate the relationship between gonadal function, insulin and psychosocial stress in middle-aged men. DESIGN. A population-based, cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING. Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS. Four hundred and thirty-nine males, all aged 51 years. MAIN VARIABLES. Body-mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), lipids, fibrinogen, lung function tests (FVC, FEV1, PEF), blood pressure, a self-administered questionnaire with questions on psychosocial variables, lifestyle and self-rated health. RESULTS. Free testosterone correlated inversely (P
The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)
CONTEXT: Androgens are associated with metabolic risk factors in men. However, the independent impact of androgens and androgen metabolites on metabolic risk factors in men is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the predictive value of serum levels of androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites for metabolic risk factors. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two Swedish cohorts (1,068 young adult and 1,001 elderly men). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured correlation of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and glucuronidated androgen metabolites with fat mass, fat distribution, serum lipids, and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Both DHT and T were negatively associated with different measures of fat mass in both cohorts (P
The adaptation of black and polar bears to their environments is proportional to the severity of climate and food restriction. Both black and polar bears mate during the spring, despite differences in their recent metabolic state. Reproductive activity in black bears follows 4 mo of torpor, whereas reproduction in polar bears occurs prior to torpor. The goals of this study were to measure the annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black and polar bears, and to determine if changes in serum levels of these steroids were associated with metabolic condition or photoperiod. Serum testosterone (T) concentrations were elevated during spring in black and polar bears. Moreover, this increase in serum T in polar bears during spring was correlated with age and testis size. Serum progesterone (P4) concentrations increased in pregnant polar bears in fall coincident with the time of expected implantation. No increases in serum P4 were observed in nonpregnant black and polar bears. Serum estradiol (E2) was elevated in nonpregnant and pregnant polar bears 2 mo prior to the time of expected implantation. We found that serum sex steroids measured in black and polar bears change independent of torpor. Therefore, our results suggest that photoperiod may be a more important regulator of serum steroid levels and reproduction than metabolic condition.
BACKGROUND: Animal and epidemiologic data indicate that exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. We have assessed whether the POP-biomarkers 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) affect thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones, gonadotropins or sex hormone concentrations in men. METHODS: Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of CB-153, and p,p'-DDE, were determined in 196 men (median age 59 years, range 48-82). Hormone analyses in serum were performed with immunoassays. The effect of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE (as continuous or categorized variables) were evaluated by linear regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between p,p'-DDE and TSH. An increase of 100 ng/g lipid of p,p'-DDE corresponded to an increase of 0.03 mU/l (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.01, 0.05) in TSH level. The explanatory value (R(2)) of the multivariate model was only 7%. Moreover, there was a significant negative association between p,p'-DDE and estradiol. An increase of 100 ng/g lipid of p,p'-DDE corresponded to a decrease of 0.57 pmol/l (95% CI -1.0, -0.12) in estradiol level. The R(2)-value was only 4%. No associations were observed between any of the POP biomarkers and the other hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between p,p'-DDE and TSH and the negative association between p,p'-DDE and estradiol, among middle-aged and elderly men, were not accompanied by associations between the POP-markers and thyroxin, testosterone, and gonadotropins, respectively. The results gives some additional support for that POP exposure may affect HPT- and HPG-axes also in humans, but the overall epidemiological data are still not coherent enough to allow any firm conclusions.
Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern.
We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels.
We recruited 169 male offspring (19-21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988-1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30.
Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment.
The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2004 Sep 1;38(17):4489-9515461154
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Aug;112(11):1204-715289168
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish young men were approached when they attended a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. PATIENT(S): From 1996-1998, 1,558 (19%) young men (mean age 19 years) volunteered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen volume (in milliliters), sperm concentration (in million per milliliter), percentage of motile spermatozoa, percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology, total sperm count (in million), and testis size (in milliliters). In addition, serum reproductive hormones were measured. RESULT(S): Serum T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and inhibin B all decreased with increasing BMI, whereas free androgen index and E(2) increased with increasing BMI. Serum FSH was higher among slim men. After control for confounders, men with a BMI 25 kg/m(2) had a reduction in sperm concentration and total sperm count of 21.6% (95% CI 4.0%-39.4%) and 23.9% (95% CI 4.7%-43.2%), respectively, compared to men with BMI between 20-25 kg/m(2). Percentages of normal spermatozoa were reduced, although not significantly, among men with high or low BMI. Semen volume and percentage of motile spermatozoa were not affected by BMI. CONCLUSION(S): High or low BMI was associated with reduced semen quality. It remains to be seen whether the increasing occurrence of obesity in the Western world may contribute to an epidemic of poor semen quality registered in some of the same countries. If so, some cases of subfertility may be preventable.