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Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264835
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Bo A G Jönsson
Jens Peter Bonde
David M Hougaard
Arieh Cohen
Christian H Lindh
Richard Ivell
Gunnar Toft
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):91-9
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diethylhexyl Phthalate - analysis
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - analysis
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Immunoassay
Infant, Newborn
Insulin - analysis
Leydig Cells
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Pregnancy
Proteins - analysis
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure in relation to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and human fetal Leydig cell function.
We studied 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls. Second-trimester amniotic fluid samples were available from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank (n = 25,105) covering 1980-1996. We assayed metabolites of DEHP and DiNP (n = 645) and steroid hormones (n = 545) by mass spectrometry. We assayed insulin-like factor 3 by immunoassay (n = 475) and analyzed data using linear or logistic regression.
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP, DEHP metabolite) was not consistently associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. However, we observed an 18% higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5%-33%) testosterone level, and a 41% lower (-56% to -21%) insulin-like factor 3 level in the highest 5cx-MEPP tertile compared with the lowest. Mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP, DiNP metabolite) showed elevated odds ratio point estimates for having cryptorchidism (odds ratio = 1.28 [95% CI = 0.80 to 2.01]) and hypospadias (1.69 [0.78 to 3.67]), but was not consistently associated with the steroid hormones or insulin-like factor 3.
Data on the DEHP metabolite indicate possible interference with human male fetal gonadal function. Considering the DiNP metabolite, we cannot exclude (nor statistically confirm) an association with hypospadias and, less strongly, with cryptorchidism.
PubMed ID
25384265 View in PubMed
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The relation of closed birth intervals to the sex of the preceding child and the sexual orientation of the succeeding child.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209695
Source
J Biosoc Sci. 1997 Jan;29(1):111-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
R. Blanchard
A F Bogaert
Author Affiliation
Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Biosoc Sci. 1997 Jan;29(1):111-8
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Birth Intervals
Family Characteristics
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - analysis
Homosexuality, Male - psychology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Sex
Sex ratio
Abstract
The study investigated whether homosexual men are, on average, born a shorter time after their next-older siblings than are heterosexual men. Because of mixed evidence that birth intervals are longer after a male child, the sex of the next-older sibling was included as a control variable. The probands were 220 heterosexual and 183 homosexual men with at least one older sibling examined in Southern Ontario in 1994-95. These completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire concerning their family background and other biodemographic information. The results showed that birth interval was negatively correlated with sibship size, positively correlated with maternal age, and uncorrelated with paternal age. They also confirmed that birth intervals are longer after a male than after a female child. The mean birth intervals preceding heterosexual and homosexual males, however, were virtually identical, indicating that the association of short birth intervals with decreased sex hormone levels in cord blood is unrelated to the development of sexual orientation.
PubMed ID
9881124 View in PubMed
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