PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypes of antigen (Ag) presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva during the development of experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC), which serves as a model for investigation of severe types of human allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS: Brown Norway rats treated by ovalbumin (OVA) were used in this study. To confirm the restriction of MHC class II by OVA-specific T cells, monoclonal Abs against MHC class II were added to the conventional proliferation assay. To evaluate the MHC class II expression in the conjunctiva during the development of EC, an immunohistochemical analysis, either as the single or double staining, was performed. Conjunctival fibroblast cell lines were established from naive rats and the MHC class II expression was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. To examine the roles of costimulatory molecules, OVA-specific T cells were stimulated with anti-TcR Ab and anti-CD28 Ab and then subjected for Western blotting to evaluate the ERK phosphorylation. Finally, in vivo expression of B7 molecules was examined immunohistochemically. RESULTS: OVA-specific T cells recognized OVA in the context of MHC class II. MHC class II was expressed in conjunctival macrophages but not in fibroblasts. EC induction was accompanied by abundant infiltration of macrophages positive for MHC class II. MHC class II was also expressed in conjunctival epithelial cells by EC induction. Stimulation from CD28 was necessary for ERK phosphorylation. B7-2, but not B7-1, was expressed in the conjunctiva. CONCLUSION: Conjunctival macrophages may represent a major source of APCs for the induction of EC in the conjunctiva.
Syndecans are a four member family of cell surface proteoglycans, which via their heparan sulfate chains can bind both extracellular matrix molecules and heparin-binding growth factors. In signal transduction they cooperate with tyrosine kinase receptors and thus can participate in the regulation of cell growth and behaviour. Besides the fact that their developmental expression follows morphogenetic rather than histological boundaries, also changes in their expression take place during development of diseases. Among these, the loss of syndecan expression during malignant transformation suggests that syndecans could play a role in restricting tumor growth and metastasis.
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is a sensor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and regulates expression of several key lipogenic genes. We used a 2-stage design to investigate whether ATF6 polymorphisms are associated with lipids in subjects at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
In stage 1, 13 tag-SNPs were tested for association in Dutch samples ascertained for familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) or increased risk for CVD (CVR). In stage 2, we further investigated the SNP with the strongest association from stage 1, a Methionine/Valine substitution at amino-acid 67, in Finnish FCHL families and in subjects with CVR from METSIM, a Finnish population-based cohort. The combined analysis of both stages reached region-wide significance (P=9 x 10(-4)), but this association was not seen in the entire METSIM cohort. Our functional analysis demonstrated that Valine at position 67 augments ATF6 protein and its targets Grp78 and Grp94 as well as increases luciferase expression through Grp78 promoter.
A common nonsynonymous variant in ATF6 increases ATF6 protein levels and is associated with cholesterol levels in subjects at increased risk for CVD, but this association was not seen in a population-based cohort. Further replication is needed to confirm the role of this variant in lipids.
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Aug;83(2):180-9218674750
Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to biglycan deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Biglycan (bgn) is a small extracellular matrix proteoglycan enriched in skeletal tissues, and biglycan-deficient male mice have decreased trabecular bone mass and bone strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone phenotype of the biglycan-deficient female mice and to investigate the effect of estrogen depletion by ovariectomy (OVX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: OVX or sham operations were performed on 21-week-old mice that were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 7), wt OVX (n = 9), bgn-deficient sham (n = 10) and bgn-deficient OVX (n = 10). The mice were killed 4 weeks after surgery. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), biochemical markers, and histomorphometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the male mice, there were only few effects of bgn deficiency on bone metabolism in female mice, showing a clear gender difference. However, when stressed by OVX, the female bgn knockout (KO) mice were resistant to the OVX-induced trabecular bone loss. The wt mice showed a decrease in trabecular bone mineral density by pQCT measurements, a decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), and an increase in mineral apposition rate. In contrast, no significant changes were detected in bgn KO mice after OVX. In addition, analysis of the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline showed no significant increase in the bgn KO OVX mice compared with bgn KO sham mice. Measurements of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL revealed increased levels of OPG and decreased levels of RANKL in the bgn KO mice compared with wt mice. In conclusion, the bgn deficiency protects against increased trabecular bone turnover and bone loss in response to estrogen depletion, supporting the concept that bgn has dual roles in bone, where it may modulate both formation and resorption ultimately influencing the bone turnover process.
Some molecular subtypes of breast cancer have preferential sites of distant relapse. The protein expression pattern of the primary tumor may influence the first distant metastasis site.
We identified from the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry patients diagnosed with breast cancer in five geographical regions Finland in 1991-1992, reviewed the hospital case records, and collected primary tumor tissue. Out of the 2,032 cases identified, 234 developed distant metastases after a median follow-up time of 2.7 years and had the first metastatic site documented (a total of 321 sites). Primary tumor microarray (TMA) cores were analyzed for 17 proteins using immunohistochemistry and for erbB2 using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and their associations with the first metastasis site were examined. The cancers were classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ enriched, basal-like or non-expressor subtypes.
A total of 3,886 TMA cores were analyzed. Luminal A cancers had a propensity to give rise first to bone metastases, HER2-enriched cancers to liver and lung metastases, and basal type cancers to liver and brain metastases. Primary tumors that gave first rise to bone metastases expressed frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and SNAI1 (SNAIL) and rarely COX2 and HER2, tumors with first metastases in the liver expressed infrequently SNAI1, those with lung metastases expressed frequently the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin-5 (CK5) and HER2, and infrequently progesterone receptor (PgR), tumors with early skin metastases expressed infrequently E-cadherin, and breast tumors with first metastases in the brain expressed nestin, prominin-1 and CK5 and infrequently ER and PgR.
Breast tumor biological subtypes have a tendency to give rise to first distant metastases at certain body sites. Several primary tumor proteins were associated with homing of breast cancer cells.
Cites: Cancer. 2011 May 1;117(9):1837-4621509760
Cites: Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;14(13):4103-1018593987
Some data suggest that the interaction between CD28 and CD80 (B7.1) stimulates Th1-responses and that CD28 and CD86 (B7.2) stimulates Th2-responses, however this is controversial. We addressed this issue by using mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced autoimmunity in Brown Norway (BN) rats as a highly polarized Th2 model and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats as a highly polarized Th1 model. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to CD80 and CD86, given singly, had little effect in either model, however when given together they almost completely suppressed the HgCl2-induced autoimmunity: the peak immunoglobulin (Ig)E concentration was 3.25 microg/ml in treated animals versus 2770 microg/ml in controls (P
CDw150, a receptor up-regulated on activated T or B lymphocytes, has a key role in regulating B cell proliferation. Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease have mutations in a gene encoding a protein, DSHP/SAP, which interacts with CDw150 and is expressed in B cells. Here we show that CDw150 on B cells associates with two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, 59 kDa and 145 kDa in size. The 59-kDa protein was identified as the Src-family kinase Fgr. The 145-kDa protein is the inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase, SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP). Both Fgr and SHIP interact with phosphorylated tyrosines in CDw150's cytoplasmic tail. Ligation of CDw150 induces the rapid dephosphorylation of both SHIP and CDw150 as well as the association of Lyn and Fgr with SHIP. CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis is enhanced by signaling via CDw150, and CDw150 ligation can override CD40-induced rescue of CD95-mediated cell death. The ability of CDw150 to regulate cell death does not correlate with serine phosphorylation of the Akt kinase, but does correlate with SHIP tyrosine dephosphorylation. Thus, the CDw150 receptor may function to regulate the fate of activated B cells via SHIP as well as via the DSHP/SAP protein defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease patients.
PURPOSE: Although apoptosis is assumed to play a pivotal role in retinal function loss, its mechanism and real influence on retinal function are still unclear. To investigate the relation between retinal function and apoptosis, we studied photoreceptor apoptosis in experimental retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: We induced RD by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate in Brown Norway rats. Apoptotic photoreceptors were detected by TdT-dUTP Terminal Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL). To evaluate the function of the detached retina, electroretinograms (ERGs) were taken on day 1, 3 with corneal electrodes and full-field stimulation. RESULTS: Apoptotic DNA fragmentation appeared 12 hours after RD, was most prominent on day 3, and decreased thereafter. The ERGs showed that the amplitudes of dark-adapted a-waves and light adapted 2 Hz b-waves decreased immediately after RD and continued to decrease over time. The administration of Fas/Fc chimera recombinant protein or a caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD.fmk, failed to prevent either photoreceptor apoptosis or retinal functional damage. In contrast, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) significantly impeded both apoptosis and dysfunction. The ERGs recognized the functional changes sensitively, and these ERG changes correlated well to the amount of photoreceptor apoptosis. Immunohistochemical study showed that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a novel caspase-independent apoptotic factor, was relocalized from mitochondria to the nucleus in this process. CONCLUSIONS: The present results showed that apoptosis was a key phenomenon in the retinal dysfunction in RD and that this process was transmitted mainly by mitochondria-dependent pathways rather than Fas/Fas-L or downstream caspase dependent pathways.