Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated with elevated blood pressure.
We genotyped 9185 individuals from the adult Danish general population.
Allele frequencies of 16Arg, 27Glu, and 164Ile were 0.38, 0.44, and 0.01, respectively. Among women never treated with antihypertensive medication those heterozygous for Thr164Ile versus non-carriers had increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0.02). Women heterozygous for Thr164Ile versus non-carriers had an odds ratio for elevated blood pressure of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.30-2.86). Finally, women double heterozygous for Thr164Ile and Gln27Glu or Gly16Arg versus non-carriers at all 3 loci had an odds ratio for elevated blood pressure of 2.49 (1.28-4.85) or 3.19 (1.46-6.97). In men, blood pressure was not influenced by this genetic variation.
In women Thr164Ile heterozygosity is associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, and represent a risk factor for elevated blood pressure in women in the general population. This was most pronounced in those women also heterozygous for Gln27Glu or Gly16Arg.
Panaefluoroline B (2) is a fluorescent yellowish-green pigment produced by the cultured mycobiont of a lichen, Amygdalaria panaeola. Panaefluoroline B (2) has an isoquinoline skeleton, a C5 unit, and an amino acid, glycine, in its structure. The biosynthetic pathway of 2 was revealed by feeding experiments using [1-(13)C]-sodium acetate and [1,2-(13)C2][(15)N]-glycine. The analysis of labeling patterns of 2 and its mass spectrum suggested the isoquinoline part is biosynthesized via the acetate-malonate pathway with glycine as the nitrogen source and that the C5 unit originates from the mevalonate pathway.
Glycine is used to treat various health problems and is efficient in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Since glycine exists as a few polymorphs, the aim of this work is to compare the effects of the alpha- and gamma-forms of glycine on the behavior of the genetic catalepsy (GC) strain of rats. Both polymorphs of glycine have been administered to rats orally as pure solid chemicals, and cataleptic behavior and behaviors in the open-field, elevated plus-maze, and light-dark box tests were studied. Both the alpha- and gamma-polymorphs of glycine increased exploratory activity in the open-field test, but only the gamma-polymorph had beneficial effects on catalepsy and exploratory activity in the light-dark box and reduced anxiety in the elevated plus-maze.
OBJECTIVE: To compare three types of equipment during hysteroscopic resection. DESIGN: A randomized study. SETTING: Women's clinic at Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. PATIENT(S): Two hundred premenopausal women with menorrhagia caused by dysfunctional bleedings, fibroids, or polyps. INTERVENTION(S): Hysteroscopic resection was performed either with monopolar electrodes using glycine 1.5% as irrigant or with two different types of bipolar electrodes (TCRis; Olympus, Hamburg, Germany and Versapoint; Gynecare, Menlo Park, CA) using saline as irrigant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Change in serum sodium as a result of irrigant consumption, operating time, and amount of tissue removed. RESULT(S): A statistically significant reduction in mean serum sodium from 138.7 mmol/L to 133.8 mmol/L was seen in the monopolar group, compared with the case of the saline groups with no reduction. The amount of resected tissue in the monopolar and TCRis group was approximately 1.00 g/min, compared with 0.65 g/min in the Versapoint group. Loss of fluid during the procedure was significantly higher in the two bipolar groups. CONCLUSION(S): Bipolar electrodes appear to have a safer profile compared with monopolar electrodes because of the unchanged serum sodium. Irrigant consumption was significantly higher in the two bipolar groups, without any side effects during or after the procedure. Furthermore, the TCRis loop appears to be superior to the Versapoint loop, as regards operating time and amount of tissue removed.