A number of medium-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids and their monoglycerides were tested against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) to determine which lipids were most active during a short incubation time. The aim was to find which lipid would be preferable as the active ingredient in a virucidal hydrogel formulation for the purpose of preventing transmission of pathogens to mucosal membranes, particularly sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and bacteria, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae. The main strategy was that the formulations would be fast-acting, killing large numbers of virus or bacteria on contact in a short time, preferably causing at least a 10000-fold reduction in virus/bacteria titer in 1-5 min. Monocaprin, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid, and lauric acid were found to be most active of all the lipids tested, causing a greater than 100000-fold reduction in virus titer in 1 min at a concentration of 20 mM. When tested at a concentration of 10 mM for 1 min, monocaprin was still fully active whereas lauric acid had no or negligible activity. It was concluded that monocaprin was most suitable as the active ingredient in a fast-acting virucidal gel formulation, and several hydrogel formulations containing monocaprin were tested. Formulations where the monoglyceride was dissolved in glycofurol were found to be active against HSV-1. The hydrogel formulations containing 20 mM monocaprin were highly virucidal in vitro and caused a greater than 100000-fold (HSV-1) inactivation of virus in human semen in 1 min. Formulations in dilution 1:10 were cytotoxic in monolayers of CV-1 cells, but they were 10-100 fold less cytotoxic than a commercial product which contains 2% nonoxynol-9.
Hydrogel formulations containing the monoglyceride monocaprin have shown potent microbicidal activity against several sexually transmitted viruses and bacteria. It is recommended that formulations for preventing infection in the vagina have a low pH as the HIV virus is inactivated at low pH. The object of the work was to investigate how incorporation of buffers into the hydrogel formulations affects physicochemical properties and microbicidal activity of the active substance. Two series of gels were formulated using carbomer (Carbopol 934) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) as gel-forming agents. The presence of buffers in the gels caused a lowering in gel viscosity, with carbomer gels being more sensitive to buffer presence than NaCMC gels. To obtain viscosity similar to that of a gel without buffer, the amount of polymer needs to be increased. An increase in the amount of NaCMC by 60-70% is needed to obtain the same viscosity as in gel without buffers; but for carbomer, the amount of polymer needs to be doubled. It appears that the effect of maleate buffer on NaCMC gel formation is greater than that of the citrate/lactate buffer; but for carbopol gels, the effects of the buffer systems tested on gel viscosity were equal. The virucidal activity of NaCMC gel buffered with citrate/lactate buffer against herpes simplex virus type 1 and HIV was not reduced by the presence of buffer. The results show that the presence of buffers in the hydrogel formulations affects gel viscosity, but the virucidal effect of the active compound, monocaprin, is not diminished.
The aim of this study was to produce monolaurin utilizing a commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM-20; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) through the direct esterification of lauric acid and glycerol in a solvent-free system. The influence of fatty acid/glycerol molar ratio, temperature, and Lipozyme (IM-20) concentration on the molar fraction of monolaurin were determined using an experimental design. The best conditions employed were 55 degrees C, lauric acid/glycerol molar ratio of 1.0, and 3.0% (w/w) enzyme concentration. The final product, obtained after 6 h of reaction, was 45.5% monolaurin, 26.8% dilaurin, 3.1% trilaurin, and 24.6% lauric acid. The reusability of the enzyme was also studied.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vitro microbicidal and cytocidal potency of monocaprin dissolved in pharmaceutical hydrogel formulations and to evaluate their potential use as vaginal microbicides against sexually transmitted pathogens such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: Gel formulations were mixed with equal volumes of virus/bacteria suspensions in culture medium and incubated for 1 and 5 minutes. The reduction in virus/bacteria titre was used as a measure of microbicidal activity. Similarly, gels were mixed with human semen to study their effect on leucocytes. The toxicity of the gels was tested in rabbits by the standard vaginal irritation test. RESULTS: Gels containing 20 mM of monocaprin caused a greater than 100,000-fold inactivation of HSV-2 and Neisseria in 1 minute and of Chlamydia in 5 minutes. Similarly, the gels caused a greater than 10,000-fold inactivation of HIV-1 in semen in 1 minute. They caused more than a 10,000-fold reduction in the number of viable leucocytes in semen in 1 minute. No toxic effect on the vaginal mucosa of rabbits was observed after daily exposure for 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogels containing monocaprin are potent inactivators of sexually transmitted viruses and bacteria in vitro. This simple lipid seems to be a feasible choice as a mucosal microbicide for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. It is a natural compound found in certain foodstuffs such as milk and is therefore unlikely to cause harmful side effects in the concentrations used.
The goal of this study was to investigate an intranasal cocaine vaccine containing the mucosal adjuvant macrogol-6-glycerol capylocaprate (RhinoVax). Cocaine-KLH conjugate was prepared and administered in two formulations. Ten mice were immunised intranasally using RhinoVax as adjuvant and ten subcutaneously using aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant. A negative control group (n=10) received unconjugated KLH with RhinoVax intranasally. Specific cocaine antibodies in serum were measured following primary and booster immunisation. Relative antibody responses in serum indicated that the immunisation was successful. Animals were then challenged with cocaine either intranasally or intraperitoneally with subsequent measurement of drug distribution into the serum, brain and olfactory bulb. The cocaine-immunised groups revealed significantly lower cocaine levels in the brain compared to the negative control group. The inhibition of cocaine distribution to the brain in the intranasal immunised group was comparable to that of the subcutaneous immunised group. This was unexpected because the cocaine specific antibody levels in serum were fivefold lower in the intranasal immunised group. However, the presence of mucosal cocaine specific antibodies after intranasal immunisation could play an important role in hindering direct access of cocaine into the brain via the olfactory bulb.