The accuracy and trueness of results from a laboratory test, such as the HbA1c test, should not be taken for granted but must be checked continuously. A tool for this is the participation in external quality assessment (EQA) for all laboratories performing the HbA1c-test. An additional possibility to detect changes in trueness is to monitor variations in patient cohort mean or median values that is not explained by changes in treatment or selection of patients.
Results reported to an EQA scheme for HbA1c during 20 years have been extracted from Equalis database. The results are compared to current analytical performance specifications (APS) and to the mean HbA1c levels for the Swedish population of persons with type 2 diabetes.
The accuracy of the HbA1c test has improved during the period. The hospital lab methods used in Sweden now fulfil APS agreed by professional organizations in Sweden. The accuracy for point-of-care tests (POCT) methods vary over time and fulfil APS for some periods. The bias found for some of the methods might explain changes seen in patient mean values for HbA1c in Sweden during the period 2007-2017.
The global standardization of HbA1c has resulted in an improved comparability for HbA1c-results worldwide. But even small variation in trueness for the methods in use might have important impact on mean HbA1c values for cohorts of patients. When a systematic error is observed for a specific method it is therefore essential that manufacturers correct the method without delay.
Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clin Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
To examine the relationship between diabetes distress and gender, and the association with glycemic control, social support, health behaviors, and socio-economic status.
All adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years, in the national, pediatric diabetes registry SWEDIABKIDS with type 1 diabetes were invited to complete an online questionnaire. A total of 2112 teenagers were identified.
453 complete responses were valid for analyses. Young women scored significantly higher on the distress-screening instrument DDS-2. Almost half of the female respondents exhibited moderate to severe diabetes distress-more than twice the proportion than among male respondents (44% vs 19%). Females reported twice as high scores on the fear of hypoglycemia scale (P?
The association between anthropometric measures and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is different in Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants compared with the general population in Finland: a cross-sectional population-based study.
Persons of African and Middle-Eastern origin living in European countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, accompanied by high prevalence of obesity among women but not always among men. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the association between anthropometric measures and glucose levels measured with glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose among persons of migrant origin in Finland.
Cross-sectional population-based data of the 30-64?year-old participants in the health examination of the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study was used, selecting persons without diabetes (Russian origin n =?293, Somali origin n =?184, Kurdish origin n =?275). The reference group were non-diabetic participants in the Health 2011 Survey (n =?653), representative of the general Finnish population. Anthropometric measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, available for Maamu Study participants only).
Depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-18% of variation in HbA1c among persons of Russian origin, 5-10% among persons of Somali origin, 1-3% among persons of Kurdish origin and 11-13% among the general population. Also depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-19% of variation in fasting blood glucose among persons of Russian origin, 15-20% among persons of Somali origin, 13-17% among persons of Kurdish origin and 16-17% among the general population. With exception for BMI, strength of the association between continuous anthropometric measures and HbA1c was significantly lower among persons of Kurdish origin compared with the general Finnish population (p =?0.044 for WC and p =?0.040 for WHtR).
A low degree of association between anthropometric measures and HbA1c was observed among persons of Kurdish origin. Findings of this study suggest caution is warranted when using HbA1c as a screening tool for glucose impairment among persons without diabetes in populations of diverse origin.
The aim of the current study was to determine the association between the experiences of adolescents and their parents with paediatric diabetes care at hospital outpatient departments and the association between these experiences and the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of adolescents.
Paediatric diabetes care at hospital outpatient departments in Norway.
Parents of all outpatients registered in the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry and patients in the same registry aged 12-17 years.
1399 parents participated in a national pilot survey and 335 patients aged 12-17 years from the four largest paediatric outpatient departments in Norway responded in another pilot study. 181 paired parental and patient questionnaires were analysed.
The correlations between single items, indicator scores and overall scores were explored, as was that between indicator scores and HbA1c levels.
There was a moderate but significant correlation between the responses of the patients and parents. For 40 of the 42 associations the correlations were significant, ranging from 0.16 to 0.42. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between the indicator scores of parents and the HbA1c levels of the adolescents. The strongest correlations were between HbA1c level and nurse contact and organisation, both with a correlation coefficient of 0.21 (p
Diabetes mellitus has been linked with adverse prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. However, role of hyperglycemia in PCa progression is unclear. We evaluated the link between hyperglycemia and PCa survival among Finnish PCa patients.
The study cohort included 1770 men with data on fasting glucose and diagnosed with PCa within the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for PCa in 1995-2009. Additionally, 1398 men had data on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Information on fasting glucose and HbA1c measurements was obtained from the regional laboratory database. Antidiabetic medication use was obtained from the prescription database of the Social Insurance Institution (SII). Time-dependent Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for PCa death among diabetic, impaired glucose tolerant, and normoglycemic men.
During median follow-up of 9.9 years after the diagnosis, 182 men died from PCa. After adjustment for tumor stage, Gleason grade, and PSA level at diagnosis, diabetic fasting glucose level after PCa diagnosis was associated with elevated risk of PCa death compared to normoglycemic men (HR 1.67 95% CI 1.18-2.36). The risk association was strongest among participants with localized cancer at diagnosis; HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.45-3.93. The risk elevation was observed for glucose measurements taken up to 5 years earlier. Diabetic glucose levels measured before the diagnosis were not associated with PCa death.
Our study cohort suggests an increased risk of PCa death in men with diabetic fasting blood glucose levels, supporting the role of hyperglycemia as a risk factor for PCa progression.
Background: Newer therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus can improve cardiovascular outcomes, but diabetes remains underdiagnosed in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify proteomic markers of undetected dysglycaemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) to improve the identification of patients at highest risk for diabetes. Materials and methods: In this prospective cohort, 626 patients without known diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) during admission for MI. Proximity extension assay was used to measure 81 biomarkers. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for risk factors, was used to evaluate the association of biomarkers with dysglycaemia. Subsequently, lasso regression was performed in a 2/3 training set to identify proteomic biomarkers with prognostic value for dysglycaemia, when added to risk factors, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin A1c. Determination of discriminatory ability was performed in a 1/3 test set. Results: In total, 401/626 patients (64.1%) met the criteria for dysglycaemia. Using multivariable logistic regression, cathepsin D had the strongest association with dysglycaemia. Lasso regression selected seven markers, including cathepsin D, that improved prediction of dysglycaemia (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.848 increased to 0.863). In patients with normal fasting plasma glucose, only cathepsin D was selected (AUC 0.699 increased to 0.704). Conclusions: Newly detected dysglycaemia, including manifest diabetes, is common in patients with acute MI. Cathepsin D improved the prediction of dysglycaemia, which may be helpful in the a priori risk determination of diabetes as a motivation for confirmatory OGTT.
To compare the dietary habits of children living in northern villages and in the capital of Greenland, given the reported transition from traditional to westernised diet in adults over recent decades, and to explore the association between consumption of marine mammals and fish (MMF) and the children's metabolic profile and vitamin D status.
Children answered an FFQ encompassing sixty-four individual food types pooled into six food categories. Their pubertal stage, body fat, fitness level, metabolic profile (non-HDL-cholesterol, glycated Hb, insulin, glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) as well as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration were evaluated.
Siorapaluk and Qaanaaq (north of Greenland) and Nuuk (west).
Children aged 6-18 years (n 177).
MMF were most frequently eaten by children from Siorapaluk (mean (sd): 73·4 (14·1) times/month), followed by children from Qaanaaq (37·0 (25·0) times/month), and least often eaten by children from Nuuk (23·7 (24·6) times/month; P
Regional Department for Eating Disorders, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; Oslo Diabetes Research Centre, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control.
The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry.
A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint.
Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications.