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The Canadian celiac health survey--the Ottawa chapter pilot.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185452
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2003 May 11;3:8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-11-2003
Author
Ann Cranney
Marion Zarkadas
Ian D Graham
Connie Switzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. cranneya@kgh.kari.net
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2003 May 11;3:8
Date
May-11-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Celiac Disease - complications - diagnosis - diet therapy
Diagnosis, Differential
Family Health
Feasibility Studies
Female
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Abstract
Celiac disease may manifest with a variety of symptoms which can result in delays in diagnosis. Celiac disease is associated with a number of other medical conditions. The last national survey of members of the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA) was in 1989. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of surveying over 5,000 members of the CCA, in addition to obtaining more health related information about celiac disease.
The Professional Advisory Board of the CCA in collaboration with the University of Ottawa developed a comprehensive questionnaire on celiac disease. The questionnaire was pre-tested and then a pilot survey was conducted on members of the Ottawa Chapter of the CCA using a Modified Dillmans' Total Design method for mail surveys.
We had a 76% response to the first mailout of the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 55.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 45 years. The majority of respondents presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue or weight loss. Prior to diagnosis, 30% of respondents consulted four or more family doctors. Thirty seven percent of individuals were told they had either osteoporosis or osteopenia. Regarding the impact of the gluten-free diet (GFD), 45% of individuals reported that they found following a GFD was very or moderately difficult. The quality of life of individuals with celiac disease was comparable to the mean quality of life of Canadians.
On the basis of our results, we concluded that a nationwide survey is feasible and this is in progress. Important concerns included delays in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the awareness of associated medical conditions. Other issues include awareness of celiac disease by health professionals and the impact of the GFD on quality of life. These issues will be addressed further in the national survey.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12740024 View in PubMed
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Consumption of gluten-free products: should the threshold value for trace amounts of gluten be at 20, 100 or 200 p.p.m.?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80261
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Nov;18(11):1187-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Gibert Anna
Espadaler Montserrat
Angel Canela Miguel
Sánchez Anna
Vaqué Cristina
Rafecas Magda
Author Affiliation
SMAP Celíacs de Catalunya, Coeliac Society, Barcelona, Spain. agibert@celiacscatalunya.org
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Nov;18(11):1187-95
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Celiac Disease - diet therapy
Child
Child, Preschool
Data Collection
Diet Surveys
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Female
Food Technology
Germany
Gluten - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Italy
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Reference Values
Sex Factors
Spain
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The threshold of gluten contamination in gluten-free products of both dietary and normal consumption is under debate. The objective of this study was to gather information on consumption of gluten-free products intended for dietary use of people under a gluten-free diet. This information is essential to ascertain the exposure of coeliac patients to gluten through their diet and deduce the maximum gluten content that these products should contain to guarantee a safe diet. METHODS: A diet diary of consumption of gluten-free products intended for dietary use was distributed to the coeliac societies of two typical Mediterranean countries (Italy and Spain) and two Northern countries (Norway and Germany). The diet diary included a self-weigh table of the selected food items and a 10-day consumption table. Results were reported in percentiles as distributions were clearly right skewed. RESULTS: The respondents included in the study accounted for 1359 in Italy, 273 in Spain, 226 in Norway and 56 in Germany. Gluten-free products intended for dietary use contributed significantly to the diet of coeliac patients in Italy, Germany and Norway and to a lesser degree in Spain. The most consumed gluten-free product in all countries was bread, and it was double consumed in the Northern countries (P
PubMed ID
17033440 View in PubMed
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Does breast-feeding affect the risk for coeliac disease?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58704
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:139-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
A. Ivarsson
L A Persson
O. Hernell
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Science, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:139-49
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bottle Feeding
Breast Feeding
Celiac Disease - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Diet
Female
Gluten - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Infant Food
Infant, Newborn
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Coeliac disease, or permanent gluten sensitive enteropathy, has emerged as a widespread health problem. It is considered an immunological disease, possibly of autoimmune type, albeit strictly dependent on the presence in the diet of wheat gluten and similar proteins from rye and barley. There are reasons to believe that the aetiology of coeliac disease is multifactorial, i.e. that other environmental exposures than the mere presence in the diet of gluten affect the disease process. Our studies have shown that prolonged breast-feeding, or perhaps even more important, ongoing breast-feeding during the period when gluten-containing foods are introduced into the diet, reduce the risk for coeliac disease. The amount of gluten consumed is also of importance in as much as larger amounts of gluten-containing foods increase the risk for coeliac disease, while it still is uncertain if the age for introducing gluten into the diet of infants is important. Thus, a challenging possibility, that need to be further explored, is if the coeliac enteropathy can be postponed, or possibly even prevented for the entire life span, by favourable dietary habits early in life.
PubMed ID
11065067 View in PubMed
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Effects of Gluten Intake on Risk of Celiac Disease: A Case-Control Study on a Swedish Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278513
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Mar;14(3):403-409.e3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Carin Andrén Aronsson
Hye-Seung Lee
Sibylle Koletzko
Ulla Uusitalo
Jimin Yang
Suvi M Virtanen
Edwin Liu
Åke Lernmark
Jill M Norris
Daniel Agardh
Source
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Mar;14(3):403-409.e3
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autoantibodies - blood
Biopsy
Case-Control Studies
Celiac Disease - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet - adverse effects
Female
GTP-Binding Proteins - immunology
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Intestines - pathology
Male
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Transglutaminases - immunology
Abstract
Early nutrition may affect the risk of celiac disease. We investigated whether amount of gluten in diet until 2 years of age increases risk for celiac disease.
We performed a 1-to-3 nested case-control study of 146 cases, resulting in 436 case-control pairs matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype generated from Swedish children at genetic risk for celiac disease. Newborns were annually screened for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). If tested tTGA positive, time point of seroconversion was determined from frozen serum samples taken every 3 months. Celiac disease was confirmed by intestinal biopsies. Gluten intake was calculated from 3-day food records collected at ages 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated through conditional logistic regression.
Breastfeeding duration (median, 32 wk) and age at first introduction to gluten (median, 22 wk) did not differ between cases and tTGA-negative controls. At the visit before tTGA seroconversion, cases reported a larger intake of gluten than controls (OR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.46; P = .0002). More cases than controls were found in the upper third tertile (ie, >5.0 g/d) before they tested positive for tTGA seroconversion than controls (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.70-4.13; P
Notes
Comment In: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Mar;14(3):410-226681485
PubMed ID
26453955 View in PubMed
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Gluten Intake in Early Childhood and Risk of Celiac Disease in Childhood: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310231
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 08; 114(8):1299-1306
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Nicolai A Lund-Blix
Karl Mårild
German Tapia
Jill M Norris
Lars C Stene
Ketil Størdal
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 08; 114(8):1299-1306
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) may occur in genetically predisposed individuals exposed to gluten, but it is unclear whether the amount of gluten influences the risk of disease. We aimed at determining whether the amount of gluten intake at age 18 months predicted later risk of CD.
In an observational nationwide cohort study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), we included 67,608 children born during 2000-2009 and followed up for a mean of 11.5 years (range 7.5-15.5) after exclusions for missing data. Information regarding CD diagnosis was obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register 2008-2016 and from parental questionnaires at child age 7 and 8 years. We estimated gluten intake at age 18 months from a prospectively collected parental questionnaire.
CD was diagnosed in 738 children (1.1%, 62% girls). The mean estimated amount of gluten in the diet at 18 months was 8.8 g/d (SD 3.6). The adjusted relative risk of CD was 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.18) per SD increase in daily gluten amount at age 18 months. Children in the upper quartile of gluten intake compared with the lower quartile had an increased risk of CD (adjusted relative risk 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.58). The association with gluten amount was independent of the age at introduction of gluten. Gluten introduction =6 months was also an independent risk factor for CD.
In this nationwide study, increased gluten intake at 18 months was associated with a modestly increased risk of CD later in childhood.
Notes
CommentIn: Acta Paediatr. 2020 Jan;109(1):8-10 PMID 31701547
PubMed ID
31343439 View in PubMed
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The impact of a gluten-free diet on adults with coeliac disease: results of a national survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170943
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006 Feb;19(1):41-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
M. Zarkadas
A. Cranney
S. Case
M. Molloy
C. Switzer
I D Graham
J D Butzner
M. Rashid
R E Warren
V. Burrows
Author Affiliation
Canadian Celiac Association, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. czarkadas@sympatico.ca
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006 Feb;19(1):41-9
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - diet therapy - psychology
Female
Food Labeling - standards
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Education as Topic
Quality of Life
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the impact of the gluten-free diet on the 5,240 members of the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA). Data are presented on 2,681 adults (>or=16 years) with biopsy-proven celiac disease (CD).
A mail-out survey was used. Quality of life was evaluated using the 'SF12', and celiac-specific questions.
Mean age was 56 years, mean age at diagnosis was 45 years, and 75% were female. The 'SF12' summary scores were similar to normative Canadian data, but were significantly lower for females and newly diagnosed patients. Respondents reported: following a gluten-free (GF) diet (90%), improvement on the diet (83%), and difficulties following the diet (44%), which included: determining if foods were GF (85%), finding GF foods in stores (83%), avoiding restaurants (79%), and avoiding travel (38%). Most common reactions to consumed gluten (among 73%) included pain, diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, nausea, and headache. Excellent information on CD and its treatment was provided by the CCA (64%), gastroenterologists (28%), dietitians (26%) and family doctor (12%).
Quality of life in those with CD could be increased with early diagnosis, increased availability of gluten-free foods, improved food labelling, and better dietary instruction. Education of physicians and dietitians about CD and its treatment is essential.
PubMed ID
16448474 View in PubMed
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Incidence of coeliac disease and transient gluten intolerance in children in a Swedish urban community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature41380
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1979 May;68(3):397-400
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1979
Author
N O Berg
T. Lindberg
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1979 May;68(3):397-400
Date
May-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Child, Preschool
Female
Gluten - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Infant Food
Intestinal Mucosa - pathology
Intestine, Small - pathology
Male
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
The incidence of coeliac disease in children in the city of Malmö, South Sweden, was 1 : 982 during 1966 to 1975. The diagnostic criteria were: flat intestinal mucosa on gluten-containing diet, free of symptoms, and improvement in mucosal morphology on gluten-free diet, and morphological and/or evident clinical relapse (three times) on gluten challenge. 6 (12%) of 49 children with initially a flat mucosa still had a normal mucosa on a gluten-containing diet for two years or longer, having so-called transient gluten intolerance.
PubMed ID
443040 View in PubMed
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Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults: a national dietary survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281606
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):107-117
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Camilla Hoppe
Rikke Gøbel
Mette Kristensen
Mads Vendelbo Lind
Jeppe Matthiessen
Tue Christensen
Ellen Trolle
Sisse Fagt
Mia Linda Madsen
Steffen Husby
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):107-117
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Diet Surveys
Educational Status
Energy intake
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Hordeum - chemistry
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Secale - chemistry
Triticum - chemistry
Young Adult
Abstract
Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System.
Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities.
Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P 
PubMed ID
26437832 View in PubMed
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Maternal and child gluten intake and association with type 1 diabetes: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306726
Source
PLoS Med. 2020 03; 17(3):e1003032
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2020
Author
Nicolai A Lund-Blix
German Tapia
Karl Mårild
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Pål R Njølstad
Geir Joner
Torild Skrivarhaug
Ketil Størdal
Lars C Stene
Author Affiliation
Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
PLoS Med. 2020 03; 17(3):e1003032
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Age Factors
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Glutens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The relationship between maternal gluten intake in pregnancy, offspring intake in childhood, and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes has not been examined jointly in any studies. Our aim was to study the relationship between maternal and child intake of gluten and risk of type 1 diabetes in children.
We included 86,306 children in an observational nationwide cohort study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), with recruitment from 1999 to 2008 and with follow-up time to April 15, 2018. We used registration of type 1 diabetes in the Norwegian childhood diabetes registry as the outcome. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the mother's intake of gluten up to week 22 of pregnancy and offspring gluten intake when the child was 18 months old. The average time followed was 12.3 years (0.70-16.0). A total of 346 children (0.4%) children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, resulting in an incidence rate of 32.6/100,000 person-years. Mean gluten intake per day was 13.6 g for mothers and 8.8 g for children. There was no association between the mother's intake of gluten in pregnancy and offspring type 1 diabetes, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.43, p = 0.91) for each 10-g-per-day increment. There was an association between offspring intake of gluten and a higher risk of type 1 diabetes, with an aHR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.06-2.01, p = 0.02) for each 10-g-per-day increment. Among the limitations are the likely imprecision in estimation of gluten intake and that we only had information regarding gluten intake at 2 time points in early life.
Our results show that, while the mother's intake of gluten in pregnancy was not associated with type 1 diabetes, a higher intake of gluten by the child at an early age may give a higher risk of type 1 diabetes.
PubMed ID
32119659 View in PubMed
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