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120 records – page 1 of 12.

21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
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Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275518
Source
Nature. 2016 Jul 21;535(7612):336
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-21-2016

Amplification of plant volatile defence against insect herbivory in a warming Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302856
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2019
Author
Tao Li
Thomas Holst
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. tao.li@bio.ku.dk.
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Date
06-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Betula - immunology - parasitology
Ecosystem
Global warming
Herbivory
Insecta - physiology
Tundra
Volatile Organic Compounds - metabolism
Abstract
Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play fundamental roles in atmospheric chemistry and ecological processes by contributing to aerosol formation1 and mediating species interactions2. Rising temperatures and the associated shifts in vegetation composition have been shown to be the primary drivers of plant VOC emissions in Arctic ecosystems3. Although herbivorous insects also strongly alter plant VOC emissions2, no studies have addressed the impact of herbivory on plant VOC emissions in the Arctic. Here we show that warming dramatically increases the amount, and alters the blend, of VOCs released in response to herbivory. We observed that a tundra ecosystem subjected to warming, by open-top chambers, for 8 or 18 years showed a fourfold increase in leaf area eaten by insect herbivores. Herbivory by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae, and herbivory-mimicking methyl jasmonate application, on the widespread circumpolar dwarf birch (Betula nana) both substantially increased emissions of terpenoids. The long-term warming treatments and mimicked herbivory caused, on average, a two- and fourfold increase in monoterpene emissions, respectively. When combined, emissions increased 11-fold, revealing a strong synergy between warming and herbivory. The synergistic effect was even more pronounced for homoterpene emissions. These findings suggest that, in the rapidly warming Arctic, insect herbivory may be a primary determinant of VOC emissions during periods of active herbivore feeding.
PubMed ID
31182843 View in PubMed
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Source
Curr Biol. 2013 Dec 2;23(23):R1020-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2-2013
Author
Cyrus Martin
Source
Curr Biol. 2013 Dec 2;23(23):R1020-22
Date
Dec-2-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Geologic sediments
Global warming
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Ice Cover
Lakes
PubMed ID
24455769 View in PubMed
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Arctic amplification is caused by sea-ice loss under increasing CO2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298890
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-10-2019
Author
Aiguo Dai
Dehai Luo
Mirong Song
Jiping Liu
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY, 12222, USA. adai@albany.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2019 01 10; 10(1):121
Date
01-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon Dioxide - metabolism
Climate change
Geography
Global warming
Ice Cover
Seasons
Seawater - chemistry
Solar Energy
Temperature
Abstract
Warming in the Arctic has been much faster than the rest of the world in both observations and model simulations, a phenomenon known as the Arctic amplification (AA) whose cause is still under debate. By analyzing data and model simulations, here we show that large AA occurs only from October to April and only over areas with significant sea-ice loss. AA largely disappears when Arctic sea ice is fixed or melts away. Periods with larger AA are associated with larger sea-ice loss, and models with bigger sea-ice loss produce larger AA. Increased outgoing longwave radiation and heat fluxes from the newly opened waters cause AA, whereas all other processes can only indirectly contribute to AA by melting sea-ice. We conclude that sea-ice loss is necessary for the existence of large AA and that models need to simulate Arctic sea ice realistically in order to correctly simulate Arctic warming under increasing CO2.
PubMed ID
30631051 View in PubMed
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Arctic climate impact assessment - October 2004 overview

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76876
Date
2004
  1 website  
Author
Hassol, S. J.
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Keywords
arctic climate global warming ozone
Abstract
Concludes in part: In Alaska, Western Canada, and Eastern Russia average winter temperatures have increased as much as 4 to 7°F (3-4°C) in the past 50 years and are projected to rise 7-13°F (4-7°C) over the next 100 years. Arctic sea ice during the summer is projected to decline by at least 50 percent by the end of this century with some models showing near-complete disappearance of summer sea ice. This is likely to have devastating consequences for some arctic animal species such as ice-living seals and for local people for whom these animals are a primary food source. At the same time, reduced sea ice extent is likely to increase marine access to some of the region's resource
Online Resources
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Arctic greening from warming promotes declines in caribou populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295423
Source
Sci Adv. 2017 Apr; 3(4):e1601365
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Per Fauchald
Taejin Park
Hans Tømmervik
Ranga Myneni
Vera Helene Hausner
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Sci Adv. 2017 Apr; 3(4):e1601365
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Global warming
North America
Population Dynamics
Reindeer - physiology
Abstract
The migratory tundra caribou herds in North America follow decadal population cycles, and browsing from abundant caribou could be expected to counteract the current climate-driven expansion of shrubs in the circumpolar tundra biome. We demonstrate that the sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has provided a strong signal for climate-induced changes on the adjacent caribou summer ranges, outperforming other climate indices in explaining the caribou-plant dynamics. We found no evidence of a negative effect of caribou abundance on vegetation biomass. On the contrary, we found a strong bottom-up effect in which a warmer climate related to diminishing sea ice has increased the plant biomass on the summer pastures, along with a paradoxical decline in caribou populations. This result suggests that this climate-induced greening has been accompanied by a deterioration of pasture quality. The shrub expansion in Arctic North America involves plant species with strong antibrowsing defenses. Our results might therefore be an early signal of a climate-driven shift in the caribou-plant interaction from a system with low plant biomass modulated by cyclic caribou populations to a system dominated by nonedible shrubs and diminishing herds of migratory caribou.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56450 PMID 23451049
Cites: Nat Commun. 2013;4:2514 PMID 24084589
Cites: Biol Lett. 2005 Mar 22;1(1):24-6 PMID 17148119
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 20;102(38):13521-5 PMID 16174745
Cites: Ecol Appl. 2012 Sep;22(6):1838-51 PMID 23092020
Cites: Nature. 2001 May 31;411(6837):546-7 PMID 11385559
Cites: Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):519-24 PMID 23908231
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 26;105(34):12353-8 PMID 18719116
Cites: Nature. 2002 Nov 14;420(6912):168-71 PMID 12432390
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Sep;21(9):3379-88 PMID 25967156
PubMed ID
28508037 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Sci Am. 2010 May;302(5):66-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Matthew Sturm
Author Affiliation
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USA.
Source
Sci Am. 2010 May;302(5):66-73
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Fires
Global warming
Ice Cover
Photography
Plants - growth & development
Spacecraft
Trees - growth & development
World War II
PubMed ID
20443380 View in PubMed
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Arctic science: The local perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130536
Source
Nature. 2011 Oct 13;478(7368):182-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-13-2011
Author
Henry P Huntington
Author Affiliation
Pew Environment Group, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, Alaska 99577, USA. hhuntington@pewtrusts.org
Source
Nature. 2011 Oct 13;478(7368):182-3
Date
Oct-13-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Beluga Whale - physiology
Bowhead Whale - physiology
Cooperative Behavior
Ecology - manpower - methods
Global Warming - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Knowledge
Population Groups
Research Personnel - education
PubMed ID
21993743 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):529
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-29-2013
Author
Frans-Jan W Parmentier
Torben R Christensen
Source
Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):529
Date
Aug-29-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Freezing
Global warming
Humans
Methane - adverse effects - analysis
Models, Economic
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):52923991441
Comment On: Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):401-323887416
PubMed ID
23985860 View in PubMed
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120 records – page 1 of 12.