BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss among individuals with psoriasis and a group of randomly selected controls.
Fifty individuals with psoriasis and 121 controls completed a structured questionnaire, and were examined clinically and radiographically. Oral examination included numbers of missing teeth, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), presence of dental plaque and bleeding on probing, as well as alveolar bone loss from radiographs. Questionnaires requested information on age, gender, education, dental care, smoking habits, general diseases and medicament use. For adjustment for baseline differences between psoriasis individuals and controls the propensity score based on gender, age and education was computed using multivariate logistic regression. A subsample analysis for propensity score matched psoriasis individuals (n?=?50) and controls (n?=?50) was performed.
When compared with controls, psoriasis individuals had significantly more missing teeth and more sites with plaque and bleeding on probing. The prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis was significantly higher among psoriasis individuals (24%) compared to healthy controls (10%). Similarly, 36% of psoriasis cases had one or more sites with radiographic bone loss =3 mm, compared to 13% of controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the association between moderate/severe periodontitis and psoriasis remained statistically significant when adjusted for propensity score, but was attenuated when smoking was entered into the model. The association between psoriasis and one or more sites with bone loss =3 mm remained statistically significant when adjusted for propensity score and smoking and regularity of dental visits. In the propensity score (age, gender and education) matched sample (n?=?100) psoriasis remained significantly associated with moderate/severe periodontitis and radiographic bone loss.
Within the limits of the present study, periodontitis and radiographic bone loss is more common among patients with moderate/severe psoriasis compared with the general population. This association remained significant after controlling for confounders.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure.
The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) and deep (=6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables.
There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (=6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension.
Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension.
A case referent study was performed to identify factors connected with loss of buccal attachment in adolescents. The study group was identified among 18-year-olds who had participated 2 years earlier in a study of periodontal conditions in adolescents. The criterion for inclusion in the case group was buccal attachment loss (greater than or equal to 1 mm) in one or more sites. Information on 28 variables, identified earlier as being related to recessions, was collected in a clinical examination, interview and observation. The referent group consisted of 66 subjects and the case group of 71 subjects. The case group comprised 2 subgroups, one identified as having buccal attachment loss in 1987 and the other with attachment loss occurring in the years 1987-89. Statistical analyses, using the chi 2 test, logistic regression and a variance component model, were performed to detect factors related to buccal attachment loss. These factors were thin alveolar tissue, narrow width of the attached gingiva and presence of teeth with buccal displacement. The results indicate that the anatomy of the buccal alveolar process is related to the presence of buccal attachment loss in populations with a high level of oral hygiene. To evaluate the importance of possible risk factors or etiological factors for development of buccal loss of tooth support, prospective epidemiological or experimental studies are needed.
A comparison of oral health in two different samples of 70-year-old men and women living in the city of Umeå in 1981 and 1990 showed that a higher frequency of dental visits among men could be expected in the city population in 1990 (95% CI). The frequency and pattern of reported oral problems was similar in 1981 and 1990. Total edentulousness among men and women in 1981/1990 was 31.3/21.4 and 53.5/35.7% respectively. The lower frequency in 1990 was not statistically significant on the population level. The mean number of teeth was lower in dentated men (12.8 +/- 6.0 V.S. 17.4 +/- 5.4) (p 3 mm in the cohort examined in 1990. Although, the compared 70-year-old city cohorts in Umeå examined in 1981 and 199 showed a higher frequency of dental visits and of dentated subjects, no improvement in reported oral health or dental status could be found in the 70-year-old in Umeå in 1990.
The conceptions of Finns regarding their own periodontal status were surveyed in 1972. The interviewed sample, drawn to cover the total Finnish population aged 15 years and over, comprised 965 persons. After exclusion of 233 edentulous subjects, a total of 732 dentulous persons were accepted for the present interview study. 10 percent of the interviewees were aware of their having gingivitis at that time. 57 percent were of the opinion that they had never had gingivitis. On the other hand, 20 percent of the interviewed persons had recently observed gum bleeding while 54 percent stated that they had never observed it. 21 percent of the interviewees were aware of their having dental calculus and 46 percent had the impression that they had never had calculus. 24 oercent of those interviewees who presently had calculus or had had calculus stated that they had never had it removed. Generally Finns failed to realize that gingival bleeding is a symptom of gingival inflammation. This point should be made clear in the dental health education of the future. The knowledge could help individuals to evaluate the state of their own periodontal tissues in order to obtain the best possible benefit from efficient home care.
This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a higher prevalence of caries than adolescents in a control group. Thirty-two adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 55 adolescents from a population-based sample, all 17 yr of age, underwent a clinical and radiographic dental examination. The mean ± SD number of decayed surfaces (DS) was 2.0 ± 2.2 in adolescents with ADHD and 0.9 ± 1.4 in adolescents of the control group. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group had no new caries lesions (DS = 0) compared with 62% in the control group. Six per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group were caries free [decayed, missing or filled surfaces (DMFS) = 0] compared with 29% in the control group. Adolescents with ADHD also had a higher percentage of gingival sites that exhibited bleeding on probing compared with the control group: 35 ± 39% vs. 16 ± 24% (mean ± SD), respectively. At 17 yr of age, adolescents with ADHD exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of caries compared with an age-matched control group. Adolescents with ADHD need more support regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits. They should be followed up with shorter intervals between dental examinations to prevent caries progression during adulthood.
The first two surveys of the dental health of young Finnish men were conducted in 1919 and 1965. The objective of four subsequent surveys (1976, 1981, 1986, and 1991) was to collect both interview and clinical examination data for the monitoring of changes in the oral health status of the recruits. A significant reduction in self-reported toothache, gingival bleeding, and number of decayed teeth was observed from 1976 to 1991. At examination, the numbers of decayed teeth, teeth indicated for extraction, teeth in need of fillings, and missing teeth decreased substantially, as did the teeth with visible plaque, subgingival calculus, and teeth with 4-mm or deeper periodontal pockets. This comprehensive series of successive cross-sectional oral health surveys clearly shows that since 1976 a significant decrease in oral disease and treatment needs has taken place among the Finnish population of young men.
Dental health and dietary habits were surveyed in 40 Greek immigrant (GI) children, 2-8 years old, born and living in Helsingborg, Sweden; comparisons were made with 45 Swedish (S) and 54 rural Greek (G) children of the same age. The caries situation was virtually the same in the GI and the S group, where the primary teeth were caries-free in 31-33%, mainly children 2-3 years old. The G group had a higher incidence of decayed and filled tooth surfaces in both primary and permanent teeth than the other two groups and only 15% were caries-free in the primary teeth. The S group had the lowest gingival bleeding index. The distribution of the mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts in saliva did not differ significantly between the three groups, except that the proportion of GI children with "not detectable" mutans streptococci was lower in either the S or the G group. The toothbrushing frequency was highest in the S group, followed by the GI group. Approximately 80% of the S children who brushed their teeth used a fluoride toothpaste compared to 50 and 55% respectively in the G and the GI group. The intake frequency for 5 out of 6 preselected snack-food items was highest in the G group. The carbohydrate content of the diet, including sucrose, was approximately the same in the three groups. Thus, the dental health and dietary habits of the Greek immigrant and the Swedish children were generally very similar, while the Greek rural children showed a less favourable cariological status.
An epidemiological study of the prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis in 13-year-olds was carried out in the county of V?sterbotten, Sweden, in 1987. Besides providing information on the dental health of this age group, prevalence data were compared with data from earlier surveys of the same age group carried out in 1967 and 1977, covering the same areas and applying the same diagnostic criteria and methods. The results showed a marked decrease in the prevalence of caries and gingivitis. The mean number of DMF surfaces was 4.6, compared to 9.0 in 1977 and 19.0 in 1967. The mean GBI% was reduced from 33% to 21% between 1977 and 1987. In contrast to the results from 1967 and 1977 the differences in mean DMF values between the three areas were nonsignificant in 1987. The decline in dental caries is most probably due to an extended regular dental care with a strong preventive approach. Only slight differences in dental health were found between the three areas in 1987 in contrast to in 1977 and 1967. The most likely reason was probably that larger resources had been allocated to preventive programmes in the rural areas than in the city of Ume?.