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323 records – page 1 of 33.

Absolute efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccines in household settings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59127
Source
Dev Biol Stand. 1997;89:153-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
J. Storsaeter
L. Gustafsson
Author Affiliation
Sachs' Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Dev Biol Stand. 1997;89:153-9
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines
Disease Transmission, Horizontal
Disease Transmission, Vertical
Family Characteristics
Follow-Up Studies
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Pertussis Vaccine
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Whooping Cough - prevention & control - therapy
Abstract
Household studies in the two recently concluded Swedish pertussis vaccine efficacy trials demonstrated that one monocomponent and one five-component candidate acellular pertussis vaccine had reasonably good protective efficacy against clinically typical pertussis after household exposure. Another recently concluded German household study, led from Mainz, also demonstrated reasonably good efficacy for a three-component acellular pertussis vaccine. The methods of case ascertainment and duration of follow-up had a marked influence on the efficacy estimates of another candidate two-component acellular pertussis vaccine. This vaccine and a U.S. licensed commercial whole-cell vaccine had very low efficacy against pertussis infection after household exposure. Differences in methodology preclude direct comparisons between the efficacy estimates obtained in various household studies.
PubMed ID
9272345 View in PubMed
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[A database for thyroid diseases: evaluation with special reference to potential consequences of a nuclear power plant accident]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21373
Source
Pathologe. 1998 Sep;19(5):361-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
G. Rabenhorst
M. Tsokos
F. Freitag
C. Wienegge
Author Affiliation
Pathologisch-Bakteriologisches Institut, Städtischen Krankenhauses Kiel.
Source
Pathologe. 1998 Sep;19(5):361-7
Date
Sep-1998
Language
German
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Databases, Factual
English Abstract
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Online Systems
Power Plants
Registries
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
The concept of a thyroid disease register based on a relational database system with a structured query language (SQL) is reported. More than 5000 examination findings of benign and malignant thyroid disorders have been recorded so far, covering the period from 1986 to 1996. For epidemiological studies these population-based thyroid diseases data can be allocated to a digital data map by means of the five-digit German postal code. When evaluating the data with regard to the function of the thyroid gland as an indicator of preceding nuclear power plant disasters and fallout, we found neither indicators of an increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma as an aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster nor the occurrence of clusters. The data were supplemented by the results of a survey among all Schleswig-Holstein pathologists involved in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Data on childhood carcinoma of the thyroid were also provided by the Childhood Tumor Register of the Institute of Pathology, University of Kiel, and by the Childhood Cancer Register of the University of Mainz.
PubMed ID
9816591 View in PubMed
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The AdHOC Study of older adults' adherence to medication in 11 countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171755
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;13(12):1067-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Claudia Cooper
Iain Carpenter
Cornelius Katona
Marianne Schroll
Cordula Wagner
Daniela Fialova
Gill Livingston
Author Affiliation
Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Dept. of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, Archway Campus, Holborn Union Building, Highgate Hill, London N19 5NL, UK.
Source
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;13(12):1067-76
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Czech Republic - epidemiology
Demography
Drug Therapy - statistics & numerical data
England - epidemiology
Female
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Netherlands - epidemiology
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
Authors investigated, cross-nationally, the factors, including demographic, psychiatric (including cognitive), physical, and behavioral, determining whether older people take their prescribed medication. Older adults are prescribed more medication than any other group, and poor adherence is a common reason for non-response to medication.
Researchers interviewed 3,881 people over age 65 who receive home care services in 11 countries, administering a structured interview in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was the percentage of participants not adherent to medication.
In all, 12.5% of people (N=456) reported that they were not fully adherent to medication. Non-adherence was predicted by problem drinking (OR=3.6), not having a doctor review their medication (OR=3.3), greater cognitive impairment (OR=1.4 for every one-point increase in impairment), good physical health (OR=1.2), resisting care (OR=2.1), being unmarried (OR=2.3), and living in the Czech Republic (OR=4.7) or Germany (OR=1.4).
People who screen positive for problem drinking and who have dementia (often undiagnosed) are less likely to adhere to medication. Therefore, doctors should consider dementia and problem drinking when prescribing for older adults. Interventions to improve adherence in older adults might be more effective if targeted at these groups. It is possible that medication-review enhances adherence by improving the doctor-patient relationship or by emphasizing the need for medications.
PubMed ID
16319299 View in PubMed
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Adolescent smoking and family structure in Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31283
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Dawn Griesbach
Amanda Amos
Candace Currie
Author Affiliation
Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU), Department of PE, Sport and Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, St. Leonard's Land, Holyrood Road, EH8 8AQ, Edinburgh, UK. dawn.griesbach@isd.csa.scot.nhs.uk
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jan;56(1):41-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - ethnology - psychology
Austria - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
Family - ethnology
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Health Behavior - ethnology
Humans
Income
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scotland - epidemiology
Smoking - ethnology
Social Change
Social Class
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between family structure and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in seven European countries. It also investigates the association between family structure and a number of known smoking risk factors including family socio-economic status, the adolescent's disposable income, parental smoking and the presence of other smokers in the adolescent's home. Findings are based on 1998 survey data from a cross-national study of health behaviours among children and adolescents. Family structure was found to be significantly associated with smoking among 15-year-olds in all countries, with smoking prevalence lowest among adolescents in intact families and highest among adolescents in stepfamilies. Multivariate analysis showed that several risk factors were associated with higher smoking prevalences in all countries, but that even after these other factors were taken into account, there was an increased likelihood of smoking among adolescents in stepfamilies. Further research is needed to determine the possible reasons for this association.
PubMed ID
12435550 View in PubMed
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Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors--a study based on national samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97824
Source
Ger Med Sci. 2010;8:Doc05
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Judith Rosta
Olaf G Aasland
Author Affiliation
The Research Institute of the Norwegian Medical Association, Oslo, Norway. judith.rosta@legeforeningen.no
Source
Ger Med Sci. 2010;8:Doc05
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Female
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Male
Medical Staff, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Physicians - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Abstract
AIMS: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany - respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. METHODS: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27-65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of >or=5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of >or=60 g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27-44 years versus 45-65 years) and genders. RESULTS: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27-44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. CONCLUSION: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings.
PubMed ID
20200658 View in PubMed
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Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: Lessons to be Learned.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257750
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Aug;85(8):841-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Alpo Vuorio
Tanja Laukkala
Pooshan Navathe
Bruce Budowle
Anne Eyre
Antti Sajantila
Author Affiliation
Mehiläinen Airport Health Centre, Vantaa and Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lappeenranta, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Aug;85(8):841-6
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Aviation - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Aged
Aircraft
Autopsy
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Suicidal ideation
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Aircraft assisted suicides were studied in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland during 1956-2012 by means of literature search and accident case analysis. According to our study the frequency varied slightly between the studies. Overall, the new estimate of aircraft assisted suicides in the United States in a 20-yr period (1993-2012) is 0.33% (95% CI 0.21-0.49) (24/7244). In the detailed accident case analysis, it was found that in five out of the eight cases from the United States, someone knew of prior suicidal ideation before the aircraft assisted fatality. The caveats of standard medico-legal autopsy and accident investigation methods in investigation of suspected aircraft assisted suicides are discussed. It is suggested that a psychological autopsy should be performed in all such cases. Also the social context and possibilities of the prevention of aviation-related suicides were analyzed. In addition, some recent aircraft assisted suicides carried out using commercial aircraft during scheduled services and causing many casualties are discussed.
PubMed ID
25199127 View in PubMed
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Analysis of ELP4, SRPX2, and interacting genes in typical and atypical rolandic epilepsy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256709
Source
Epilepsia. 2014 Aug;55(8):e89-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Eva M Reinthaler
Dennis Lal
Wiktor Jurkowski
Martha Feucht
Hannelore Steinböck
Ursula Gruber-Sedlmayr
Gabriel M Ronen
Julia Geldner
Edda Haberlandt
Birgit Neophytou
Andreas Hahn
Janine Altmüller
Holger Thiele
Mohammad R Toliat
Holger Lerche
Peter Nürnberg
Thomas Sander
Bernd A Neubauer
Fritz Zimprich
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Source
Epilepsia. 2014 Aug;55(8):e89-93
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Austria - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Epilepsy, Rolandic - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Genetic Variation - genetics
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Nerve Tissue Proteins - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Abstract
Rolandic epilepsy (RE) and its atypical variants (atypical rolandic epilepsy, ARE) along the spectrum of epilepsy-aphasia disorders are characterized by a strong but largely unknown genetic basis. Two genes with a putative (ELP4) or a proven (SRPX2) function in neuronal migration were postulated to confer susceptibility to parts of the disease spectrum: the ELP4 gene to centrotemporal spikes and SRPX2 to ARE. To reexamine these findings, we investigated a cohort of 280 patients of European ancestry with RE/ARE for the etiological contribution of these genes and their close interaction partners. We performed next-generation sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array based genotyping to screen for sequence and structural variants. In comparison to European controls we could not detect an enrichment of rare deleterious variants of ELP4, SRPX2, or their interaction partners in affected individuals. The previously described functional p.N327S variant in the X chromosomal SRPX2 gene was detected in two affected individuals (0.81%) and also in controls (0.26%), with some preponderance of male patients. We did not detect an association of SNPs in the ELP4 gene with centrotemporal spikes as previously reported. In conclusion our data do not support a major role of ELP4 and SRPX2 in the etiology of RE/ARE.
PubMed ID
24995671 View in PubMed
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An epidemiologic longitudinal study of sleeping problems and feeding experience of preterm and term children in southern Finland: comparison with a southern German population sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204793
Source
J Pediatr. 1998 Aug;133(2):224-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
D. Wolke
B. Söhne
K. Riegel
B. Ohrt
K. Osterlund
Author Affiliation
University of Hertfordshire, Department of Psychology, Hatfield, Great Britain.
Source
J Pediatr. 1998 Aug;133(2):224-31
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Circadian Rhythm
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature - physiology
Infant, Premature, Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology
Longitudinal Studies
Prospective Studies
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology - physiopathology
Abstract
To determine the influence of breast-feeding on the prevalence and persistence of sleeping problems in southern Finland (SF) and southern Germany (SG).
Prospective binational population study of infants admitted to special care units (SCUs) in geographically defined areas in SF and SG.
In SF, the number of SCU infants was 1057 (very preterm, 47; preterm, 258; term, 752); 485 term infants were control subjects. In SG, the number of SCU infants was 4427 (very preterm, 284; preterm, 1419; term, 2724).
Parent reports of child sleeping problems at 5, 20, and 56 months of age.
Night waking at 5 months of age was less frequent for SCU very preterm (25.5%), preterm (40.6%), and term infants (48%) than for term control subjects (56.7% to 59.9%) in SF. No differences in sleeping behavior according to gestation were found at 20 and 56 months. Sleeping problems were greater in SF infants (25.5% to 48%) than in SG infants (15.1% to 19.1%) at 5 months of age and were explained by a higher rate of breast-feeding in SF. Breast-feeding had no long-term effects on night waking or on co-sleeping in SF. In contrast, breast-fed infants continued to wake more often in SG.
Breast-feeding rather than gestational age is strongly related to night waking. More support for dealing with night waking might prevent early termination of breast-feeding.
PubMed ID
9709710 View in PubMed
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An experimental approach to the immuno-modulatory basis of host-parasite local adaptation in tapeworm-infected sticklebacks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284883
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Madeleine Hamley
Frederik Franke
Joachim Kurtz
Jörn Peter Scharsack
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - immunology
Animals
Cestoda - immunology - pathogenicity
Cestode Infections - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology - veterinary
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology
Flow Cytometry - veterinary
Germany - epidemiology
Host-Parasite Interactions - immunology
Iceland - epidemiology
Immunomodulation
Leukocytes - cytology - immunology - metabolism
Respiratory Burst
Smegmamorpha - parasitology
Spain - epidemiology
Virulence
Abstract
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more resistant to S. solidus infection compared to Spanish and German sticklebacks. Higher resistance of Icelandic sticklebacks seemed to depend on adaptive immunity, whereas sticklebacks of German origin, which were more heavily afflicted by S. solidus, showed elevated activity of innate immune traits. German S. solidus were less successful in infecting and exploiting allopatric hosts compared to their Icelandic and Spanish conspecifics. Nevertheless, exclusively SsESP from German S. solidus triggered significant in vitro responses of leukocytes from naïve sticklebacks. Interestingly, parasite indices were almost identical across the sympatric combinations. Differences in host resistance and parasite virulence between the origins were most evident in allopatric combinations and were consistent within origin; i.e. Icelandic sticklebacks were more resistant and their S. solidus were more virulent in all allopatric combinations, whereas German sticklebacks were less resistant and their parasites less virulent. Despite such differences between origins, the degree of host exploitation was almost identical in the sympatric host-parasite combinations, suggesting that the local evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites resulted in an optimal virulence, maximising parasite fitness while avoiding host overexploitation.
PubMed ID
28322743 View in PubMed
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323 records – page 1 of 33.