To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
Before 1981 no representative studies of oral health in an elderly population in northern Sweden had been presented, and longitudinal studies of oral health in the aging person were in general rare. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes in oral health in a representative sample of an elderly city population in northern Sweden. Reported oral problems and treatment needs were noted, and dental and periodontal status was registered in clinical examinations. The frequency of reported annual dental visits and of being called by the dentist increased in the younger but not in the older cohort during the 9-year period. In 1990 all the 79- and 88-year-olds with annual visits reported that they were recalled by the dentist. The clinical investigation showed an increasing amount of tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease with increasing age. Among dentulous persons 1.7 teeth per subject were lost from 1981 to 1990 in the younger cohort, compared with 2.6 teeth per subject in the older cohort. The number of sound teeth decreased very little in the younger cohort (from 3.44 to 3.34) but more evidently in the older cohort (from 3.47 to 2.65) during the 9-year period. The frequency of surfaces with attachment level > 3 mm increased statistically significantly from 1981 to 1990 in the older cohort. Subjects with annual visits had in general fewer oral problems.
The 39 item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) is the most widely used patient reported rating scale in Parkinson's disease. However, several fundamental measurement assumptions necessary for confident use and interpretation of the eight PDQ-39 scales have not been fully addressed.
Postal survey PDQ-39 data from 202 people with Parkinson's disease (54% men; mean age 70 years) were analysed regarding psychometric properties using traditional and Rasch measurement methods.
Data quality was good (mean missing item responses, 2%) and there was general support for the legitimacy of summing items within scales without weighting or standardisation. Score reliabilities were adequate (Cronbach's alpha 0.72-0.95; test-retest 0.76-0.93). The validity of the current grouping of items into scales was not supported by scaling success rates (mean 56.2%), or factor and Rasch analyses. All scales represented more health problems than that experienced by the sample (mean floor effect 15%) and showed compromised score precision towards the less severe end.
Our results provide general support for the acceptability and reliability of the PDQ-39. However, they also demonstrate limitations that have implications for the use of the PDQ-39 in clinical research. The grouping of items into scales appears overly complex and the meaning of scale scores is unclear, which hampers their interpretation. Suboptimal targeting limits measurement precision and, therefore, probably also responsiveness. These observations have implications for the role of the PDQ-39 in clinical trials and evidence based medicine. PDQ-39 derived endpoints should be interpreted and selected cautiously, particularly regarding small but clinically important effects among people with less severe problems.
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) as a screening test for dementia in an elderly Swedish population. All the inhabitants over 74 years of age in one area of Stockholm took the MMSE. The test was then compared to the clinical diagnosis of dementia. With a cut-off point of 23/24, the MMSE had a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 92%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 69%. Age, sex, and education did not substantially affect the specificity and the PPV, but had a slight effect on the sensitivity. The main causes of the false positives were somatic and psychiatric disorders. These results are in agreement with studies performed with similar methods and comparable populations.
To examine in men and women the independent associations between anxiety and depression and 1-year incident cognitive impairment and to examine the association of cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and incident cognitive impairment with 1-year incident anxiety or depression.
Prospective cohort study.
Population-based sample of 1,942 individuals aged 65 to 96.
Two structured interviews 12 months apart evaluated anxiety and mood symptoms and disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as no CIND at baseline and a follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination score at least 2 points below baseline and below the 15th percentile according to normative data. The associations between cognitive impairment and anxiety or depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.
Incident cognitive impairment was, independently of depression, associated with baseline anxiety disorders in men (odds ratio (OR)=6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-28.29) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=2.14, 95%=1.06-4.34). Moreover, the results indicated that depression disorders in men (OR=8.87, 95%=2.13-36.96) and anxiety symptoms in women (OR=4.31, 95%=1.74-10.67) were particularly linked to incident amnestic cognitive impairment, whereas anxiety disorders in men (OR=12.01, 95%=1.73-83.26) were especially associated with incident nonamnestic cognitive impairment. CIND at baseline and incident cognitive impairment were not associated with incident anxiety or depression.
Anxiety and depression appear to have different relationships with incident cognitive impairment according to sex and the nature of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should pay particular attention to anxiety in older adults because it may shortly be followed by incident cognitive treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To study the need for health screening among elderly people. SETTING, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A random sample of 605 people 75 years or older from the general population of Uppsala, Sweden received a postal questionnaire on health issues, and a random subsample of 101 persons were offered a health survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms and signs of disease in questionnaire or at health examination. RESULTS: Thirty-nine people came to the health examination at the primary health care centre (PHCC), 15 were examined in their homes, and 11 were interviewed by telephone. Seventy-eight findings were made in the PHCC group, out of which 60 were known by the proband and 18 were new. In ten cases some action was taken. Of the 54 people examined, 50 persons had one or several findings. The most prevalent problems were hypertension, urinary incontinence, and hearing problems. However, few of these problems warranted referral to a general practitioner or hospital. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that a health survey of elderly people yielded little new information on the state of health among those surveyed at the time of the data collection. The bearing on the present-day situation is discussed.
To determine the association of polypharmacy with nutritional status, functional ability and cognitive capacity among elderly persons.
This was a prospective cohort study of 294 survivors from the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) Study, with yearly follow-ups during 2004 to 2007. Participants were the citizens of Kuopio, Finland, aged 75 years and older at baseline. Polypharmacy status was categorized as non-polypharmacy (0-5 drugs), polypharmacy (6-9 drugs) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ drugs). A linear mixed model approach was used for analysis the impact of polypharmacy on short form of mini nutritional assessment (MNA-SF), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores.
Excessive polypharmacy was associated with declined nutritional status (p?=?0.001), functional ability (p?
There is a growing awareness of the need to include the oldest age groups in the epidemiological monitoring of alcohol consumption. This poses a number of challenges and this study sets out to examine the possible selection effects due to survey design, health status, and cohort replacement on estimates of alcohol use among the oldest old.
Analyses were based on three repeated cross-sectional interview surveys from 1992, 2002 and 2011, with relatively high response rates (86 %). The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+ (total n?=?2022). Current alcohol use was assessed by the question "How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits?" Alcohol use was examined in relation to survey design (response rate, use of proxy interviews and telephone interviews), health (institutional living, limitations with Activities of Daily Living and mobility problems) and birth cohort (in relation to age and period). Two outcomes were studied using binary and ordered logistic regression; use of alcohol and frequency of use among alcohol users.
Higher estimates of alcohol use, as well as more frequent use, were associated with lower response rates, not using proxy interviews and exclusion of institutionalized respondents. When adjusted for health, none of these factors related to the survey design were significant. Moreover, the increase in alcohol use during the period was fully explained by cohort replacement. This cohort effect was also at least partially confounded by survey design and health effects. Results were similar for both outcomes.
Survey non-participation in old age is likely to be associated with poor health and low alcohol consumption. Failure to include institutionalized respondents or those who are difficult to recruit is likely to lead to an overestimation of alcohol consumption, whereas basing prevalence on older data, at least in Sweden, is likely to underestimate the alcohol use of the oldest old. Trends in alcohol consumption in old age are highly sensitive for cohort effects. When analysing age-period-cohort effects, it is important to be aware of these health and design issues as they may lead to incorrect conclusions.
The Canadian Study of Health and Aging was a large, multidisciplinary, national core study--with a number of "add-on" investigations--of the epidemiology of dementia and the health of older people. This structure was a fiscally prudent way to balance between mandated and investigator-initiated inquiry. In hindsight, several important features of the study would be repeated. Future studies might profitably consider a longer funding period for analysis, and a more strategic approach to in-depth, supplementary studies.
As a consequence of the increasing number of elderly people, the proportion of people of working age (20-65) vs. the oldest-old (80+) will decrease considerably. Today, the total annual cost for the care of the elderly (health care and social services) in Sweden is about SEK 110 billion (about 6% of the GNP). The costs of health care are better correlated with the number of remaining years of life than with number of years from birth. The cost of health care during the last year in life is higher for the oldest-old than for the young-old. Informal care of demented persons is about 4-5 times more extensive than formal care. There is a strong correlation between GNP per citizen and resources spent on health care.