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1204 records – page 1 of 121.

A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in central Italy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150651
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):703-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Marco Di Luca
Daniela Boccolini
Francesco Severini
Luciano Toma
Francesca Mancini Barbieri
Antonio Massa
Roberto Romi
Author Affiliation
Vector Borne Diseases and International Health Section, Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immuno-Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. marco.diluca@iss.it
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):703-11
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anopheles - genetics - parasitology - physiology
Culicidae - growth & development
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Ecosystem
Entomology
Female
Geography
Humans
Insect Vectors - genetics - parasitology - physiology
Italy
Longitudinal Studies
Malaria - parasitology - transmission
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Population Density
Abstract
Europe was officially declared free from malaria in 1975; nevertheless, this disease remains a potential problem related to the presence of former vectors, belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Autochthonous-introduced malaria cases, recently reported in European countries, together with the predicted climatic and environmental changes, have increased the concern of health authorities over the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin. In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. This model area is represented by the geographical region named the Maremma, a Tyrrhenian costal plain in Central Italy, where malaria was hyperendemic up to the 1950s. Fortnightly, entomological surveys (April-October) were carried out in four selected sites with different ecological features. Morphological and molecular characterization, blood meal identification, and parity rate assessment of the anophelines were performed. In total, 8274 mosquitoes were collected, 7691 of which were anophelines. Six Anopheles species were recorded, the most abundant of which were Anopheles labranchiae and An. maculipennis s.s. An. labranchiae is predominant in the coastal plain, where it is present in scattered foci. However, this species exhibits a wider than expected range: in fact it has been recorded, for the first time, inland where An. maculipennis s.s. is the most abundant species. Both species fed on a wide range of animal hosts, also showing a marked aggressiveness on humans, when available. Our findings demonstrated the high receptivity of the Maremma area, where the former malaria vector, An. labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities.
PubMed ID
19485768 View in PubMed
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20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95958
Source
Ambio. 2001 Mar;30(2):72-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
Kullman L.
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. leif.kullman@eg.umu.se
Source
Ambio. 2001 Mar;30(2):72-80
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate
Geography
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Sweden
Trees - growth & development
Abstract
Climate warming by ca. 0.8 degree C between the late-19th and late-20th century, although with some fluctuations, has forced multispecies elevational tree-limit advance by > 100 m for the principal tree species in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian mountain range. Predominantly, these processes imply growth in height of old-established individuals and less frequently upslope migration of new individuals. After a slight retardation during some cooler decades after 1940, a new active phase of tree-limit advance has occurred with a series of exceptionally mild winters and some warm summers during the 1990s. The magnitude of total 20th century tree-limit rise varies with topoclimate and is mainly confined to wind-sheltered and snow-rich segments of the landscape. Thickening of birch tree stands in the "advance belt" has profoundly altered the general character of the subalpine/low alpine landscape and provides a positive feedback loop for further progressive change and resilience to short-term cooling episodes. All upslope tree-limit shifts and associated landscape transformations during the 20th century have occurred without appreciable time lags, which constitutes knowledge fundamental to the generation of realistic models concerning vegetation responses to potential future warming. The new and elevated pine tree-limit may be the highest during the past 4000 14C years. Thus, it is tentatively inferred that the 20th century climate is unusually warm in a late-Holocene perspective.
PubMed ID
11374309 View in PubMed
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2009 Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Alaska: temporal and geographic characteristics of spread and increased risk of hospitalization among Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136553
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2011
Author
Jay D Wenger
Louisa J Castrodale
Dana L Bruden
James W Keck
Tammy Zulz
Michael G Bruce
Donna A Fearey
Joe McLaughlin
Debby Hurlburt
Kim Boyd Hummel
Sassa Kitka
Steve Bentley
Timothy K Thomas
Rosalyn Singleton
John T Redd
Larry Layne
James E Cheek
Thomas W Hennessy
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. jdw2@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Date
Jan-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Child
Child, Preschool
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Geography
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Population Groups
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Alaska Native people have suffered disproportionately from previous influenza pandemics. We evaluated 3 separate syndromic data sources to determine temporal and geographic patterns of spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) in Alaska, and reviewed records from persons hospitalized with pH1N1 disease in 3 areas in Alaska to characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of disease in Alaskans. A wave of pH1N1 disease swept through Alaska beginning in most areas in August or early September. In rural regions, where Alaska Native people comprise a substantial proportion of the population, disease occurred earlier than in other regions. Alaska Native people and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI) were 2-4 times more likely to be hospitalized than whites. Alaska Native people and other minorities remain at high risk for early and substantial morbidity from pandemic influenza episodes. These findings should be integrated into plans for distribution and use of vaccine and antiviral agents.
PubMed ID
21342894 View in PubMed
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Accessibility and distribution of the Norwegian National Air Emergency Service: 1988-1998.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190330
Source
Air Med J. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):39-45
Publication Type
Article
Author
Torhild Heggestad
Knut Yngve Børsheim
Author Affiliation
SINTEF Unimed Health Services Research, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Air Med J. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):39-45
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Ambulances - supply & distribution - utilization
Emergency Medical Services - supply & distribution - utilization
Geography
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Health services needs and demand
Health Services Research
Humans
Multivariate Analysis
National Health Programs
Norway
Physician's Practice Patterns
Regression Analysis
Safety Management
Time Factors
Transportation of Patients
Abstract
To evaluate the accessibility and distribution of the Norwegian National Air Emergency Service in the 10-year period from 1988 to 1998.
The primary material was annual standardized activity data that included all helicopter missions. A multivariate model of determinants for use of the helicopter service was computed by linear regression. Accessibility was measured as the percentage of the population reached in different flying times, and we evaluated the service using a simulation of alternative locations for the helicopter bases.
The helicopter service (HEMS) has short access times, with a mean reaction time of 8 minutes and a mean response time of 26 minutes for acute missions. Nearly all patients (98%) are reached within 1 hour. A simulation that tested alternative locations of the helicopter bases compared with current locations showed no increase in accessibility. The use of the service shows large regional differences. Multivariate analyses showed that the distances of the patients from the nearest helicopter base and the nearest hospital are significant determinants for the use of HEMS.
Establishment of a national service has given the Norwegian population better access to highly qualified prehospital emergency services. Furthermore, the HEMS has a compensating effect in adjusting for differences in traveling distances to a hospital. Safety, cost-containment, and gatekeeper functions remain challenges.
PubMed ID
11994734 View in PubMed
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Access to myocardial revascularization procedures: closing the gap with time?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170348
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Alain Vanasse
Théophile Niyonsenga
Josiane Courteau
Abbas Hemiari
Author Affiliation
Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (QC), J1H 5N4, Canada. alain.vanasse@usherbrooke.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:60
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary - utilization
Cardiac Care Facilities - supply & distribution
Cohort Studies
Coronary Artery Bypass - utilization
Female
Geography
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - surgery
Myocardial Revascularization - utilization
Patient Discharge
Quebec - epidemiology
Registries
Time Factors
Abstract
Early access to revascularization procedures is known to be related to a more favorable outcome in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but access to specialized care varies widely amongst the population. We aim to test if the early gap found in the revascularization rates, according to distance between patients' location and the closest specialized cardiology center (SCC), remains on a long term basis.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec's hospital discharge register (MED-ECHO). The study population includes all patients 25 years and older living in the province of Quebec, who were hospitalized for a MI in 1999 with a follow up time of one year after the index hospitalization. The main variable is revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft). The population is divided in four groups depending how close they are from a SCC ( or = 105 km). Revascularization rates are adjusted for age and sex.
The study population includes 11,802 individuals, 66% are men. The one-year incidence rate of MI is 244 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. At index hospitalization, a significant gap is found between patients living close ( or = 32 km). During the first year, a gap reduction can be observed but only for patients living at an intermediate distance from the specialized center (64-105 km).
The gap observed in revascularization rates at the index hospitalization for MI is in favour of patients living closer (
Notes
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PubMed ID
16524458 View in PubMed
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Access to treatment and educational inequalities in cancer survival.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266954
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Jul;36:98-111
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Jon H Fiva
Torbjørn Hægeland
Marte Rønning
Astri Syse
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Jul;36:98-111
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cancer Care Facilities - utilization
Educational Status
Female
Geography
Health Behavior
Health Services Accessibility
Health Status Disparities
Healthcare Disparities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Norway - epidemiology
Physician-Patient Relations
Quality of Health Care
Referral and Consultation - standards - statistics & numerical data
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Specialization - standards - statistics & numerical data
Survival Analysis
Travel
Abstract
The public health care systems in the Nordic countries provide high quality care almost free of charge to all citizens. However, social inequalities in health persist. Previous research has, for example, documented substantial educational inequalities in cancer survival. We investigate to what extent this may be driven by differential access to and utilization of high quality treatment options. Quasi-experimental evidence based on the establishment of regional cancer wards indicates that (i) highly educated individuals utilized centralized specialized treatment to a greater extent than less educated patients and (ii) the use of such treatment improved these patients' survival.
PubMed ID
24780404 View in PubMed
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The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38150
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-1989
Author
T. Harjulehto
T. Aro
H. Rita
T. Rytömaa
L. Saxén
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Date
Apr-15-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Accidents
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Geography
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. INTERVENTIONS--Children were divided into three temporal groups: controls, children who were expected to be born in August to December 1986, and children who were expected to be born in February to December 1987. They were also divided, separately, into three groups according to the three geographic zones. END POINT--Incidence of congenital malformations, preterm births, and perinatal deaths. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--There were no significant differences in the incidence of malformations or perinatal deaths among the three temporal and three geographic groups. A significant increase in preterm births occurred among children who were exposed to radiation during the first trimester whose mothers lived in zones 2 and 3, where the external dose rate and estimated surface activity of caesium-137 were highest. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that the amount of radioactive fallout that Finnish people were exposed to after the accident at Chernobyl was not high enough to cause fetal damage in children born at term. The higher incidence of premature births among malformed children in the most heavily polluted areas, however, remains unexplained.
Notes
Comment In: BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):13842502266
PubMed ID
2499391 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6747
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2001
Author
K. Kannan
J. Koistinen
K. Beckmen
T. Evans
J F Gorzelany
K J Hansen
P D Jones
E. Helle
M. Nyman
J P Giesy
Author Affiliation
National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Department of Zoology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. kuruntha@msu.edu
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Date
Apr-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Carnivora
Dolphins
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - pharmacokinetics
Geography
Liver - chemistry
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seals, Earless
Seawater
Species Specificity
Whales
Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluorinated molecule that has recently been identified in the sera of nonindustrially exposed humans. In this study, 247 tissue samples from 15 species of marine mammals collected from Florida, California, and Alaskan coastal waters; and northern Baltic Sea; the Arctic (Spitsbergen); and Sable Island in Canada were analyzed for PFOS. PFOS was detected in liver and blood of marine mammals from most locations including those from Arctic waters. The greatest concentrations of PFOS found in liver and blood were 1520 ng/g wet wt in a bottlenose dolphin from Sarasota Bay, FL, and 475 ng/mL in a ringed seal from the northern Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea), respectively. No age-dependent increase in PFOS concentrations in marine mammals was observed in the samples analyzed. The occurrence of PFOS in marine mammals from the Arctic waters suggests widespread global distribution of PFOS including remote locations.
PubMed ID
11329707 View in PubMed
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Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131962
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Richard R Schneider
Grant Hauer
Dan Farr
W L Adamowicz
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ministik99@telus.net
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23254
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Oil and Gas Fields
Petroleum - economics
Resource Allocation - economics - methods
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21858046 View in PubMed
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1204 records – page 1 of 121.