A total of 1075 Russians from the Russian part of Karelia were genotyped at high-resolution for the human leukocyte antigen loci HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 using next generation sequencing methods. The haplotypic and allelic profiles as well as Hardy-Weinberg proportions of this population sample were evaluated. As the most frequent 6-locus haplotype, A*03:01?g?~?B*07:02?g?~?C*07:02?g?~?DRB1*15:01?g?~?DQB1*06:02?g?~?DPB1*04:01?g was identified with an estimated frequency of 3.5%. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was detected at any of the loci studied. The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name "Russia Karelia" and the identifier AFN3430.
Based on a comparison of the data on the frequencies of 1206 surnames registered in the Malokarachayevsky District of Karachay-Cherkessia with a number of other parameters and historical data, it was concluded that Karachay surnames are acceptable for use as a quasigenetic marker in a study of a population-genetic description of the area.
Existing methods for estimating historical effective population size from genetic data have been unable to accurately estimate effective population size during the most recent past. We present a non-parametric method for accurately estimating recent effective population size by using inferred long segments of identity by descent (IBD). We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. Our method is implemented in the open-source IBDNe software package.
Cites: Genetics. 1971 Aug;68(4):581-975166069
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Oct 7;280(1768):2013133923926150
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Nov 7;93(5):840-5124207118
The antagonistic pleiotropy theory of senescence postulates genes or traits that have opposite effects on early-life and late-life performances. Because selection is generally weaker late in life, genes or traits that improve early-life performance but impair late-life performance should come to predominate. Variation in the strength of age-specific selection should then generate adaptive variation in senescence. We demonstrate this mechanism by comparing early and late breeders within a population of semelparous capital-breeding sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We show that early breeders (but not late breeders) are under strong selection for a long reproductive lifespan (RLS), which facilitates defence of their nests against disturbance by later females. Accordingly, early females invest less energy in egg production while reserving more for nest defence. Variation along this reproductive trade-off causes delayed or slower senescence in early females (average RLS of 26 days) than in late females (reproductive lifespan of 12 days). We use microsatellites to confirm that gene flow is sufficiently limited between early and late breeders to allow adaptive divergence in response to selection. Because reproductive trade-offs should be almost universal and selection acting on them should typically vary in time and space, the mechanism described herein may explain much of the natural variation in senescence.
Future adaptation to changes in the environment depends on the existence of additive genetic variances within populations. Recently, considerable attention has also been given to the non-additive component, which plays an important role in inbreeding depression and bottleneck situations. In this study, I used data from a North Carolina II crossing experiment, analysed with restricted maximum-likelihood methods, to estimate the additive and dominance genetic (co)variances for eight quantitative characters in two different-sized populations of Scabiosa canescens, a rare and threatened plant in Sweden. There was no evidence for genetic erosion in the small Hällestad population ( approximately 25 individuals) relative to the large Ahus population ( approximately 5000 individuals). In fact, slightly higher heritabilities were found in the Hällestad population. The additive genetic variance was statistically significant for all traits in both populations, but only a few additive covariances reached significance. The Hällestad population also had higher mean levels and more traits with significant dominance variance than the Ahus population. The variance attributable to maternal effects was too low to be considered significant. There was only a weak correspondence between heritabilities for each trait in the present study and previous estimates based on open-pollinated families of the same populations, but the mean heritability (over characters) was consistent between the studies.
The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Relative frequencies vary within different ethnic groups and geographical locations.
1) To determine the frequencies of hereditary and sporadic adult onset SCAs in the Movement Disorders population; 2) to assess if the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) premutation is found in this population.
A retrospective chart review of individuals with a diagnosis of adult onset SCA was carried out. Testing for SCA types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), Friedreich ataxia and the FMR1 expansion was performed.
A total of 69 patients in 60 families were identified. Twenty-one (35%) of the families displayed autosomal dominant and two (3.3%) showed autosomal recessive (AR) pattern of inheritance. A positive but undefined family history was noted in nine (15%). The disorder appeared sporadic in 26 patients (43.3%). In the AD families, the most common mutation was SCA3 (23.8%) followed by SCA2 (14.3%) and SCA6 (14.3%). The SCA1 and SCA8 were each identified in 4.8%. FA was found in a pseudodominant pedigree, and one autosomal recessive pedigree. One sporadic patient had a positive test (SCA3).Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and FMR1 testing was negative.
A positive family history was present in 53.3% of our adult onset SCA patients. A specific genetic diagnosis could be given in 61.9% of dominant pedigrees with SCA3 being the most common mutation, followed by SCA2 and SCA6. The yield in sporadic cases was low. The fragile X premutation was not found to be responsible for SCA.
Two mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1, referred to as mutations 1 and 2, are frequent among Finnish kindreds with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). In order to assess the ages and origins of these mutations, we constructed a map of 15 microsatellite markers around MLH1 and used this information in haplotype analyses of 19 kindreds with mutation 1 and 6 kindreds with mutation 2. All kindreds with mutation 1 showed a single allele for the intragenic marker D3S1611 that was not observed on any unaffected chromosome. They also shared portions of a haplotype of 4-15 markers encompassing 2.0-19.0 cM around MLH1. All kindreds with mutation 2 shared another allele for D3S1611 and a conserved haplotype of 5-14 markers spanning 2.0-15.0 cM around MLH1. The degree of haplotype conservation was used to estimate the ages of these two mutations. While some recessive disease genes have been estimated to have existed and spread for as long as thousands of generations worldwide and hundreds of generations in the Finnish population, our analyses suggest that the spread of mutation 1 started 16-43 generations (400-1,075 years) ago and that of mutation 2 some 5-21 generations (125-525 years) ago. These datings are compatible with our genealogical results identifying a common ancestor born in the 16th and 18th century, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that all Finnish kindreds studied to date showing either mutation 1 or mutation 2 are due to single ancestral founding mutations relatively recent in origin in the population. Alternatively, the mutations arose elsewhere earlier and were introduced in Finland more recently.
Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is the major component of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. One of six identified polymorphisms in the apoC-III 5'-untranslated region (T-455C) is located within a functional insulin-response element. In a group of 137 elderly individuals (70-106 years old), the allele distribution was analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Statistical analysis of allele frequencies was performed on subgroups selected by age and in elderly patients with arterial hypertension or ischemic heart disease. A greater frequency of the apoC-III -455C allele was demonstrated with aging (p
This is a continuation of a series of papers devoted to studying the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in migrants from isolated highland populations of Dagestan to new ecological conditions (lowlands). This paper describes the main results of studying the relationship between levels of inbreeding, homozygosity, and physiological sensitivity. Earlier, we found that decreased resistance to changing environmental factors in migrants to lowlands from the Dagestan highlands was connected with their high level of homozygosity. The data obtained allow us to assume that missing links in this chain of events include, in addition to parameters of inbreeding level, parameters of neurophysiological sensitivity, including absolute and differential sensitivity of various analyzers sensory systems, which are from 65 to 75% genetically determined. Migrants from highland auls (villages) to lowlands exhibited a decreased rate of sensomotor reactions in response to light and sound of various intensities, as well as decreased differential color sensitivity in the long-, medium-, and short-wave ranges of the spectrum, compared to highlanders. The results suggest the selective mortality of migrants from highlands to lowlands during adaptation to new conditions. Those migrants who dies were characterized by specific gene complexes that determined the characteristic features of expression of a number of interrelated polymorphic and quantitative traits. Thus, the high levels of homozygosity and inbreeding were accompanied by a greater neurophysiological sensitivity and lower indices of body weight and height.
The main demographic parameters of the population of South Altaians from the Mendur-Sokkon village, Ust'-Kanskii raion, Altai Republic, were studied. This population was classified as a growing one because the population's reproductive size was large (37%), the prereproductive part constituted the majority of the population (52%), and the average number of surviving children per spouse was 2.6. The population studied began to mix with other ethnic groups (mostly Russians and Kazakhs) only recently; therefore, the proportion of interethnic hybrids was only 5%. The tribal structure of the Mendur-Sokkon population was typical of all South Altaians and characterized by stringent observance of exogamous regulations. An ethnically pure core was preserved in the population. The degree of endogamy was 0.36; however, the population mostly exchanged marriage migrants within the Ust'-Kanskii raion. A study of postreproductive females revealed that the average number of surviving children and pregnancies per female was 4.9 and 5.3, respectively; these values were lower than those in indigenous northern Siberian populations studied earlier. The high value of the Crow's index of total selection (Itot = 0.63) was mainly accounted for by the differential fecundity component, I(f) = 0.40, whereas the prereproductive mortality component (Im = 0.16) was considerably lower than in northern Siberian populations (Nganasans, Forest and Tundra Nentsi, Evens, Asian Eskimos, etc.) and closer to the values characteristic of urban human populations.