Previous studies have suggested that a locus predisposing to specific reading disability (dyslexia) resides on chromosome 6p23-p21.3. We investigated 79 families having at least two siblings affected with phonological coding dyslexia, the most common form of reading disability (617 people genotyped, 294 affected), and we tested for linkage with the genetic markers reported to be linked to dyslexia in those studies. No evidence for linkage was found by LOD score analysis or affected-sib-pair methods. However, using the affected-pedigree-member (APM) method, we detected significant evidence for linkage and/or association with some markers when we used published allele frequencies with weighting of rarer alleles. APM results were not significant when we used marker allele frequencies estimated from parents. Furthermore, results were not significant with the more robust SIMIBD method using either published or parental marker frequencies. Finally, family-based association analysis using the AFBAC program showed no evidence for association with any marker. We conclude that the APM method should be used only with extreme caution, because it appears to have generated false-positive results. In summary, using a large data set with high power to detect linkage, we were unable to find evidence for linkage or association between phonological coding dyslexia and chromosome 6p markers.
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jan;60(1):27-398981944
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;58(4):892-58644756
Recent evidence has implicated the genes for 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as susceptibility genes for stroke in the Icelandic population. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of these genes in a central European population of stroke patients.
A total of 639 consecutive stroke patients and 736 unrelated population-based controls that had been matched for age and sex were examined using a case-control design. Twenty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering ALOX5AP were genotyped. For PDE4D, microsatellite AC008818-1 and 12 SNPs, which tag all common haplotypes in previously identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, were analyzed.
A nominally significant association with stroke was observed with several SNPs from ALOX5AP, including SNP SG13S114, which had been part of the Icelandic at-risk haplotype. Associations were stronger in males than in females, with SG13S114 (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.55; P=0.017) and SG13S100 (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54; P=0.024) showing the strongest associations. No significant associations were detected with single markers and haplotypes in PDE4D. The frequencies of single-marker alleles and haplotypes differed largely from those in the Icelandic population.
The present study suggests that sequence variants in the ALOX5AP gene are significantly associated with stroke, particularly in males. Variants in the PDE4D gene are not a major risk factor for stroke in individuals from central Europe. Population differences in allele and haplotype frequencies as well as LD structure may contribute to the observed differences between populations.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show obsessive repetitive symptoms that are characteristic to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aberrant glutamate function has been suggested to a risk for both ASDs and OCD. Considering the common metabolic pathway and recent results from association studies both in OCD and ASDs, a question, whether there is common molecular background in ASDs and OCD, was raised.
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9p24 and 11p12-p13 containing glutamate transporter genes SLC1A1 and SLC1A2 and their neighboring regions in 175 patients with ASDs and 216 controls of Finnish origin were analyzed using real-time-PCR or direct sequencing.
The strongest association was detected with rs1340513 in the JMJD2C gene at 9p24.1 (P=0.007; corrected P=0.011) that is the same SNP associated with infantile autism (P=0.0007) in the autism genome project consortium (2007). No association was detected at 11p12-p13 with ASD. Interestingly, the strongest association in OCD has been found at rs301443 (P=0.000067) residing between SLC1A1 and JMJD2C at 9p24.
In summary, our results give evidence for a possible common locus for OCD and ASDs at 9p24. We speculate that the area may represent a special candidate region for obsessive repetitive symptoms in ASDs.
Short tandem repeat (STR) loci represent a rich source of highly polymorphic markers in the human genome which are useful for the purposes of forensic identification and determination of biological relatedness of individuals. Here, as a part of an ongoing extensive study, we report the analysis of a multilocus genotype survey of 642 to 870 chromosomes in the French Canadian Caucasian population of Québec at six STR loci. The loci HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01, HUMF13A01, HUMFESFPS, and HUMvWA were typed using two multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Amplified DNA samples were subsequently analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. The heterozygote frequencies of the loci range from 0.614 to 0.820 (0.661 to 0.818 expected) and the number of alleles from 7 to 12 per locus. Although statistically significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations of genotype frequencies was noted at some loci by one or more tests, in general, the genotype frequencies are well estimated from the product of allele frequencies at all loci. The most frequent six-locus genotype is expected to occur in the French Canadian population with a frequency of 3.50 by 10(-5) and together, these six loci have an average probability of discrimination of 0.9999985. The study presented here indicates that these six STR loci are informative genetic markers for identity testing purposes in the French Canadian Caucasian population of Québec.
Putative prostate cancer susceptibility loci have recently been identified by genetic linkage analysis on chromosomes 1q24-25 (HPC1). 1q44.243 (PCaP), and Xq27-28 (HPCX). In order to estimate the genetic linkage in Icelandic prostate cancer families, we genotyped 241 samples from 87 families with eleven markers in the HPC1 region, six markers at PCaP, and eight at HPCX. Concurrently, we assessed allelic imbalance at the HPC1 and PCaP loci in selected tumors from the patients. For each of the candidate regions, the combined parametric and non-parametric LOD scores were strongly negative. Evidence for linkage allowing for genetic heterogeneity was also insignificant for all the regions. The results were negative irrespective of whether calculations were performed for the whole material or for a selected set of early age at onset families. The prevalence of allelic imbalance was relatively low in both the HPC1 (0%-9%) and PCaP (5%-20%) regions and was not elevated in tumors from positively linked families. Our studies indicate that the putative cancer susceptibility genes at chromosomes 1q24-25, 1q44.2-43, and Xq27-28 are unlikely to contribute significantly to hereditary prostate cancer in Iceland and that selective loss of the HPC1 and PCaP loci is a relatively rare somatic event in prostate cancers.
The differences in the polymorphic allele frequency distribution patterns of the biallelic (M470 and TUB20) and microsatellite (IVS6aGATT, IVS8CA, and IVS17CA) markers within the CFTR gene between normal and delF508 chromosomes have been established. For most of the marker loci similar distribution of the allele frequencies on normal and mutant chromosomes without delF508 was demonstrated. Certain polymorphic alleles displayed substantial linkage disequilibrium with the delF508 mutation. Analysis of the IVS6aGATT-IVS8CA-M470-IVS17CA-TUB20 haplotypes association on normal and mutant chromosomes provided identification of the delF508 ancestral haplotype. It was suggested that delF508 mutant chromosomes were introduced into the modern Bashkir gene pool as a result of Slavic migrations from the Eastern Europe. The IVS6aGATT-IVS8CA-M470-IVS17CA-TUB20 major haplotype (77272) revealed was statistically significantly most frequently found on the mutant chromosomes without the delF508 mutation. This finding suggests that the Bashkir cystic fibrosis patients, mostly belonging to the Turkic-speaking families, possessed specific CF gene defect associated with the given haplotype.
Allelic frequencies at three polymorphic markers in the CFTR gene were detected on chromosomes derived from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy donors from Moscow and the Moscow region. These polymorphic markers are tetranucleotide tandem repeats GATT in intron 6B, M470V in exon 10, and T854T in exon 14 (fragment A). Frequencies at allele 1 of the M470V marker, along with allele 2 of GATT and T854T, are two times higher for CF patients without delta F508 mutation than for healthy donors, and there is linkage disequilibrium of these alleles of the polymorphic markers analyzed with the CF gene. Allele 1 of M470V and T854T markers, as well as allele 2 of the GATT marker (six repeats), are absolutely linked to mutation F508 of the CFTR gene. Using the polymorphic markers studied, family analysis of CF was carried out in two families.
Strong evidence demonstrates a genetic susceptibility to suicidal behaviour and a relationship between suicide and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to test for association between suicide and five selected genetic variants, which had shown association with suicide in other populations.
We performed a nationwide case-control study on all suicide cases sent for autopsy in Denmark between the years 2000 and 2007. The study comprised 572 cases and 1049 controls and is one of the largest genetic studies in completed suicide to date. The analysed markers were located within the Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4), Monoamine Oxidase-A (MAOA) and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase I and II (TPH1 and TPH2) genes.
None of the genetic markers within SLC6A4, MAOA, TPH1 and TPH2 were significantly associated with completed suicide or suicide method in the basic association tests. Exploratory interaction test showed that the minor allele of rs1800532 in TPH1 has a protective effect for males younger than 35 years and females older than 50 years, whereas for the oldest male subjects, it tended to be a risk factor. We also observed a significant interaction between age-group and the 5-HTTLPR genotype (with and without rs25531) in SLC6A4. The long allele or high expression allele tends to have a protective effect in the middle age-group.
We only analysed a limited number of genetic variants.
None of the analysed variants are strong risk factors. To reveal a better understanding of the genes involved in suicide, we suggest future studies should include both genetic and non-genetic factors.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the extent to which relationships between apolipoprotein E, cognitive functioning, and survival in people aged 60 to 80 persist into advanced old age. DESIGN: Examine the effect of apolipoprotein E genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over 5 years, and survival in a cohort of 1,551 nonagenarians. SETTING: The Danish 1905 birth cohort. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand five hundred fifty-one nonagenarians from the Danish 1905 birth cohort. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and five brief cognitive tests (cognitive composite). RESULTS: The subjects were stratified into four groups by occurrence of a protective (epsilon2) or a risk (epsilon4) apo E allele (epsilon22 and epsilon23, epsilon33, epsilon24 and epsilon34, epsilon44). At intake, the mean scores for the three genotype groups were 22.1, 21.8, 21.4, and 21.0 for MMSE and 0.10, 0.07, -0.02, and 0.30 for the cognitive composite, respectively. Growth-curve analyses showed that, although individuals carrying at least one epsilon4 allele had slightly lower MMSE scores and declined slightly more rapidly over time, this effect was not statistically significant and was not apparent in scores on the cognitive composite. In subjects whose functioning was relatively well preserved (those still living and able to participate in the assessment, and whose cognitive functioning had declined less than 4 points on the MMSE), epsilon4 frequencies tended to decline at subsequent waves (P=.03, chi-square test for trend), but epsilon4 had no significant survival disadvantage (hazard ratio=1.11 (95% confidence interval=0.99-1.25; P=.07). CONCLUSION: Apo E genotype has a small effect on the probability of remaining a well-functioning nonagenarian but no separately detectable effect on cognitive functioning, cognitive decline, or survival.
In the past several years, allelic association has helped map a number of rare genetic diseases in the human genome. A commonly used upper bound on the recombination fraction between the disease gene and an associated marker is known to be biased downward, so there is the possibility that an investigator could be misled. This upper bound is based on a moment equation that can be derived within the context of a Poisson branching process, so its performance can be compared with a recently proposed likelihood bound. We show that the confidence level of the moment upper bound is much lower than expected, while the confidence level of the likelihood bound is in line with expectation. The effects of mutation at either the marker or disease locus on the upper bounds are also investigated. Results indicate that mutation is not an important force for typical mutation rates, unless the recombination fraction between the marker and disease locus is very small or the disease allele is very rare in the general population. Finally, the impact of sample size on the likelihood bound is investigated. The results are illustrated with data on 10 simple genetic diseased in the Finnish population.