Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
A new restless legs syndrome locus on chromosome 14 recently has been reported in one family of Italian origin. Our study aimed to replicate this finding and determine the importance of this locus in the French Canadian population. Markers spanning the region were genotyped in 14 large families and linkage assessed using two-point and multipoint logarithm of odds scores. Possible linkage to this locus was found in one of our kindreds providing support for the existence of this locus and indicating that this locus may be responsible for a small fraction of French Canadian restless legs syndrome.
Previous studies have suggested that a locus predisposing to specific reading disability (dyslexia) resides on chromosome 6p23-p21.3. We investigated 79 families having at least two siblings affected with phonological coding dyslexia, the most common form of reading disability (617 people genotyped, 294 affected), and we tested for linkage with the genetic markers reported to be linked to dyslexia in those studies. No evidence for linkage was found by LOD score analysis or affected-sib-pair methods. However, using the affected-pedigree-member (APM) method, we detected significant evidence for linkage and/or association with some markers when we used published allele frequencies with weighting of rarer alleles. APM results were not significant when we used marker allele frequencies estimated from parents. Furthermore, results were not significant with the more robust SIMIBD method using either published or parental marker frequencies. Finally, family-based association analysis using the AFBAC program showed no evidence for association with any marker. We conclude that the APM method should be used only with extreme caution, because it appears to have generated false-positive results. In summary, using a large data set with high power to detect linkage, we were unable to find evidence for linkage or association between phonological coding dyslexia and chromosome 6p markers.
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One third of families with classical adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and a majority of those with attenuated FAP (AFAP), remain APC mutation-negative by conventional methods. Our purpose was to clarify the genetic basis of polyposis and genotype-phenotype correlations in such families.
We studied a cohort of 29 adenomatous polyposis families that had screened APC mutation-negative by the protein truncation test, heteroduplex analysis, and exon-specific sequencing. The APC gene was investigated for large genomic rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and for allelic mRNA expression by single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE). The AXIN2 gene was screened for mutations by sequencing.
Four families (14%) showed a constitutional deletion of the entire APC gene (three families) or a single exon (one family). Seven families (24%) revealed reduced or extinct mRNA expression from one APC allele in blood, accompanied by loss of heterozygosity in the APC region in six (75%) of eight tumors. In 15 families (52%), possible APC involvement could be neither confirmed nor excluded. Finally, as detailed elsewhere, three families (10%) had germline mutations in genes other than APC, AXIN2 in one family, and MYH in two families.
"APC mutation-negative" FAP is genetically heterogeneous, and a combination of MLPA and SNuPE is able to link a considerable proportion (38%) to APC. Significant differences were observed in clinical manifestations between subgroups, emphasizing the importance of accurate genetic and clinical characterization for the proper management of such families.
A gene (DYT1) for early onset idiopathic torsion dystonia was mapped to chromosome 9q34 in non-Jewish and Jewish families. The DYT1 gene region has been excluded in other families with adult onset and cervical or cranial onset idiopathic torsion dystonia from the United States, Great Britain, and France. The role of DYT1 in a Swedish family with adult onset idiopathic torsion dystonia in four generations was examined. The disease seems to be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode with reduced penetrance in this family. There were 10 affected family members, with a mean age of onset of 27 (range 18 to 50) years. The disease showed variable expression, with focal, multifocal, and generalised forms of dystonia in different family members. Genetic analysis excluded the chromosomal region containing the DYT1 locus as being responsible for dystonia in this family.
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The GLC1A locus for autosomal dominant primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with juvenile onset (before 20 years) has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. Recently, a French-Canadian family was described in which both juvenile-onset and middle-age or early-onset POAG were observed and linked to GLC1A. We now describe a second POAG family with variable age of onset (range 11-51, median 36 years of age). Linkage to GLC1A was established with a maximum lod score of 6.21 at the D1S452 locus. A recombination event in a severely glaucomatous patient restricted the distal boundary of the GLC1A interval proximal to the AFM154xc9 marker. This study strengthens the idea that early-onset POAG may also be determined by the GLC1A genetic region.
The discovery of a functional polymorphism within the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has not only strengthened the hypotheses implicating DRD4 in the etiology of neuropyschiatric disorders, but also provided a genetic marker for testing these hypotheses. The possibility of the dopamine D4 receptor as a candidate gene for schizophrenia was investigated in a large Swedish kindred segregating for schizophrenia. Linkage to schizophrenia was tested by linkage analyses of 6 polymorphic markers (at 4 loci) in chromosome 11p15.5 including the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) loci. Schizophrenia was excluded from close linkage to the DRD4 locus using two of the polymorphisms located within the dopamine D4 receptor gene. The first DRD4 polymorphism consists of variation in the number of a 48 bp imperfect direct repeat in the third exon; the second consists of a variable number of repeated G nucleotides in the first intron. In addition, some of the individuals homozygous for four or seven copies of 48 bp repeat alleles were tested for previously reported sequence variation among repeats. No single haplotype of the DRD4 alleles or haplotype of other markers in chromosome 11p15.5 was found to be common to the schizophrenic individuals in this family. Therefore, we find no evidence for linkage of the D4 receptor, or this region of 11p15.5, with genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in this kindred.
An association between the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) was recently demonstrated. In order to confirm the association and to gauge the ability of standard genetic linkage methods to identify susceptibility genes, we investigated 15 Swedish late-onset Ad families. We found an association of familial AD to the APOE epsilon 4 allele (P = 0.01) but no indication of linkage to the APOE region using 2-point linkage analysis, and only weak evidence using the affected pedigree-member (APM) method. Our results confirm an APOE epsilon 4 association with late-onset familial AD and indicate that susceptibility genes can easily be missed when using standard lod score and APM genetic linkage analysis.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are severe neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Only a few predisposing genes have been identified so far. We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage screen for ASDs in Finnish families where the most significant linkage peak was identified at 3q25-27. Here, 11 positional and functionally relevant candidate genes at 3q25-27 were tested for association with autistic disorder. Genotypes of 125 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 97 families with at least one individual affected with autistic disorder. The most significant association was observed using two non-synonymous SNPs in HTR3C, rs6766410 and rs6807362, both resulting in P = 0.0012 in family-based association analysis. In addition, the haplotype C-C corresponding to amino acids N163-A405 was overtransmitted to affected individuals (P = 0.006). Sequencing revealed no other variants in the coding region or splice sites of HTR3C. Based on the association analysis results in a previously identified linkage region, we propose that HTR3C represents a novel candidate locus for ASDs and should be tested in other populations.
The spectrum and prevalence rate of hereditary pathology in Kanevskii and Bryukhovetskii raions (districts) of Krasnodar krai (territory) were analyzed. The total size of the studied population was 145,937. The prevalence rate of monogenic hereditary pathology was estimated. This value was 1.08 +/- 0.08, 0.72 +/- 0.07, and 0.20 +/- 0.06 per 1000 people for autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), and X-linked (XL) recessive diseases, respectively. Forty-two AD (158 affected persons in 82 families), 32 AR (105 affected persons in 82 families), and 6 XL disease entities (13 affected persons in 8 families) were found. A slight genetic subdivision was found in the populations of Kanevskii and Bryukhovetskii raions. However, it was not found to affect the prevalence of hereditary pathology.